標題: 中港溪上中下游客語生態調查研究
作者: 羅肇錦
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 四海客家話;客語生態;族群接觸;詞彙調查;福佬客語;海四客家話;四溪流域;language ecology;Feng-shan stream;Hakka dialect;language contact
公開日期: 2010
摘要: 北台灣客家居民最多最集中的地區是新竹、苗栗之間的鳳山溪、頭前溪、中港溪、後龍溪一帶,更值得注意的是每一條溪的語言生態,都是上游南島語、中游客家話、下游閩南語。造成這種住民分布的原因,固然與住民本身的營生習慣有密不可分的關係,也與族群之間定居或移居年代的先後有關。甚至與族群相處時是對立還是接觸,也有其不同的程度的改變。如果可以把各溪上游原住民的賽夏語(Saisiat)泰雅語(Atayal),中游的客家語(四縣、海陸以外,饒平也羼雜其中,產生四海、海四、四饒、海饒等客家話),下游的閩南話(泉州腔、漳州腔、詔安腔、福佬客腔),一一做深入的調查。把各種語言互相影響的狀況,做平面的分析,也可以藉所得語言現象,做歷史的推斷。例如南庄、頭份有四海客家話,大湖、西湖有海四客家話,後龍、竹南有福佬客語,通霄、苑裡有詔安腔遺留----等,造成這種語言現象,必然跟早期移墾屯聚有關,以原鄉語言為基礎,遷居該地後與當地語言互相接融,慢慢產生出各地區不同生態的語言。 為了對鳳山溪、頭前溪、中港溪、後龍溪等四條溪的客家話生態,做充分的瞭解,所以計畫把調查工作分成三個部分,依照三個年期進行各項調查: 第一年鳳山溪上中下游泰雅族語、海陸話、四海話、福佬客語、閩南話為調查對象,暫定尖石、橫山、關西、新埔、竹北、新港---各選一個定點,做特殊語音詞彙調查。 第二年後龍溪上中下游泰雅族語、四縣話、四海話、福佬客語、閩南話為調查對象,暫定泰安、大湖、公館、銅鑼、苗栗、後龍---各選一個定點,做特殊語音詞彙調查。 第三年中港溪上中下游賽夏族語、泰雅族語、海陸話、四海話、福佬客語、閩南話為調查對象,暫定南庄、峨眉、三灣、頭份、頭屋、竹南---各選一個定點,做特殊語音詞彙調查。
Generally speaking, Xinzhu and Miaoli are well populated by Hakka people in Northern Taiwan. To be more specific, the population is concentrating alongside rivers including Feng-shan stream, Tou-qian stream, Zhung-gang stream, Hou-long stream. Alongside each river, the most noteworthy phenomenon could be observed—Austronesian is spoken in the upper streams; Hakka is spoken in the middle reaches; and Southern-min, in the lower reaches. The reasons that cause the distribution of different groups of inhabitants and language ecology could be explained in various perspectives. First of all, some inferred that the in-born habits to make a living among peoples differ. However, the chronological sequence of different groups of people immigrating to each area and the oppositional or merging attitudes among these peoples attribute to crucial and influential criteria. Thus, it is urgent to proceed an extended and thorough investigation which comprises the aboriginal languages such as Saisiat and Atayal in the upstream, Hakka sub-dialects including Sixian, Hai-Lu and Raoping in the middle reaches, and Amoy sub-dialects including Quan-zhou, Zhang-zhou, Zhau-an and Hoklo-Hakka. We will center on contact situation in Hakka. The mutual influence of languages could be analyzed synchronically in order to observe code-switching or mixing under contact situations. Furthermore, the residues of language change through time could be inferred diachronically. For example, the different combinations of Hakka pidgins such as Si-hai in Nan Zhuang and Tou-fen areas, Hai-si in Dahu and Hsi-hu areas, Hoklo-Hakka in Hou-lung and Zhu-nan, and elements of Zhao’an Hakka in Tung-xiao and Yuan-li …, etc. In all, the early reclamation and living in a compact community in this area together with language contact and fusion contribute to the special language ecology alongside the rivers. Therefore, in this project, we will focus on Hakka townships distributed along the four riversides and explore the contact situation on the basis of the distinctive words collected in each spot. The project will be divided into four parts and be executed in three years. First Year—Feng-shan stream (previously noted as “Tou-qian” stream). The languages distributed in upper, middle and lower reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka and Hoklo. Tentatively, Jian-shi, Heng-shan, Guan-xi, Xin-pu, Zhu-bei, Xin-gang are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Second Year--Hou-long stream. The languages distributed in upper, middle and lower reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-xian Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka, and Hoklo. Tentatively, Tai’an, Dahu, Gong-guan, Tong-luo, Yuan-li, Hou-long are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Third Year—Zhung-gang stream. The languages distributed in the reaches are Atayal, Hai-lu Hakka, Si-hai Hakka, Hoklo-Hakka and Hoklo. Tentatively, Tai’an, Nan-zhuang , Emei, San-wan, Tou-fen, Tou-wu, and Zhu-nan are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen. Forth Year—Tou-qian stream. The languages distributed in the reaches are Saisiat, Hai-lu Rao-hai (Raoping and Hai-lu), and Hoklo. Tentatively, Wu-feng, Qiong-lin, Zhu-dong, Bao-shan, Liou-jia, and Nan-liao are planned to be investigated with one spot of each of them to be chosen.
官方說明文件#: 99-0399-06-05-03-05
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/99856
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=2041009&docId=330657
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


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