標題: 四溪流域客語特徵詞比較(III)
A Comparison on Distinctive words of Hakka Dialects in Four Stream Basin(III)
作者: 鄭縈
國立交通大學{國際客家研究中心}
關鍵字: 四溪流域;客家話;方言特徵詞;語言接觸;Four Stream Basin;Hakka dialect;Character-Words of Hakka Dialect;language contact
公開日期: 2010
摘要: 方言特徵詞是不同方言之間的詞匯上的區別特徵,即一定批量的本區方言共有的而在外區方言少見的方言詞;各種方言都有自己的方言特徵詞;方言特徵詞批量的大小取決於不同的地域及其歷史文化條件(李如龍,2000)。台灣基本上是多方言(語言)的環境,語言、方言或次方言之間的接觸相當頻繁密切,考慮到觸引發的演變會有不同的類型及特色(Thomason 2001,2003),我們選擇四溪流域中三個語言環境不同的客家話地點─鳳山溪中下游的新埔鎮(屬新竹縣)、苗栗後龍鎮及中港溪上游的南庄鄕,這三個點分別代表海陸客與四縣客、客家與閩南及客家族群與原住民之間的互動,探討客家話與不同方言或語言接觸過程中,其特徵詞或相關語法特點如何產生變化,及變化類型是否有所不同。在第一期計劃中,我們就以溫昌衍(2001)建構的客家話特徵詞為基礎,佐以鄧盛有(2000)、黃雯君(2005)的四縣與海陸詞彙對照表,來調查新埔鎮的詞彙使用。據當地人的說法,新埔鎮有96%的客家人,其中以海陸佔絕大多數,但是他們多數都會四縣話,海陸和四縣話的詞彙確實有些差異,但是此地在詞彙的使用上也出現「四海話」的現象,海陸客家話的詞彙中也摻入四縣話詞語。 第二期計畫調查地點為苗栗後龍鎮,此地為客家與閩南雜居之處,除了延續第一期的作法,並加上李如龍(2002)的閩南語特徵詞表,以便探查客家話或閩南語特徵詞或相關語法特點在這樣的語言環境下會呈現什麼樣的面貌。初步調查結果顯示,此地閩南語與客家話的優勢隨著鄰里的不同而有不同,大致上兩種方言勢力相當,因此中老年齡層的客家人多半是雙語(閩客)流利的使用者,客家話或閩南語特徵詞都沒有受到影響;相較於雲林縣崙背的詔安客家話,在此地以閩南語為優勢的影響下,受訪者閩南語往往於凌駕於詔安話之上。基於這個觀察,我們在第三年的研究將密切注意客家人與原住民通婚時,客家人的方言特徵詞是否會受到影響,而原住民學習客家話時,是否可以熟悉運用客家話的特徵詞;最後並將針對新埔鎮、後龍鎮及南庄鄕三種具有不同語言環境的客家話進行比較,能深入探討語言接觸如何促使客家話產生變化,及其變化過程。
Contact is a very important mechanism for language change, occurring whenever there is a large bilingual population within a language community (Crowley 1997). Such has been the situation in the development of Taiwan Hakka dialects. Si-Hai Hakka means a pidgin resulting from contact between Sixian and Hai-Lu Hakka in Taiwan. Previous researches on Si-Hai Hakka mainly focus on phonology. The main theme of the project is to explore whether the Character-Words of Hakka Dialec will be change when dialect or language contact happens. Character-Words of Hakka Dialect, according to Wen(2001), means “some words which often can be seen in Hakka dialect area but seldom seen in other dialect area”. In the first year of the project, we explored whether and how contact influences distinctive words of a dialect. The Hsinpu town in Hsinchu County was investigated, where there exist 96% Hakka people, and according to the native speakers, it belongs to a Hai-Lu Hakka; however most of them can speak Sixian Hakka as well. Based on the data collected, it is observed that both types (i.e. borrowing and shift-induced interference) are found here, and even interference happens in the process of borrowing. The second year, Miaoli County was investigated. A Hakka dialect may become more like a Southern Min dialect as a result of an intimate contact, as observed in Zhao’an Hakka dialect in Yunlin County. As for some bilingual speakers of Hakka and Southern Min dialects in Miaoli, the lexicon of their Hakka dialect approximate the Southern Min one. In the following year, The Nanchuang Town will be investigated, where people may speak hakka dialect or/and a kind of Formosan languages
官方說明文件#: 99-0399-06-05-03-03
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/99844
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=2040968&docId=330655
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


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