標題: 數位儀控系統人因工程技術發展與應用先期研究
Developing Human Factors Techniques Applicable to Digital Instrumentation and Control System Design
作者: 許尚華
Hsu Shiang Hwa
國立交通大學工業工程與管理學系
關鍵字: 數位儀控;人因工程;人與系統介面;Digital I Factors Engineering;Human-System Interface
公開日期: 2005
摘要: 主控制室是核電廠的樞紐,主控制室人機介面的設計影響運轉人員的狀況察覺與決策,對於核能營運的安全影響甚鉅。以往的核電廠運轉事件與重要事故多與人機介面的設計有關,傳統儀控系統有上千個儀控設備設置於大型盤面的固定位置,運轉員必需從林林總總的資訊顯示中擷取所需的資訊,並加以整合,方能即時偵測電廠問題,做適當的處置,這種設計加賦予運轉員極大的認知負荷。有鑑於此,儀控系統廠商致力於發展先進型人機介面,利用電腦技術,賦予運轉員介面互動的彈性,提供更多運轉員所需的資訊;透過自動化,協助運轉員操作。此設計之演進不僅能夠精簡控制室的人機介面設備,而且能夠減輕運轉員的負荷、增進運轉效率。 然而,依據一般對複雜系統進行的人因工程研究顯示,先進型儀控系統可能也會產成一些使用上與運作上的問題。在使用方面,人與電腦的互動會產生下列問題:自動化將系統運作內隱化,使得運轉員難以掌握系統狀況,影響了人與自動化的互動;資訊顯示的彈性增加了人機互動操作的複雜度,難以建立使用者的心智模型,而對人機互動沒有足夠的了解,進而對於運轉員主要作業產生干擾;運轉員只能看到部分資訊而鑰匙孔效應。在運作上,電腦儀控系統的團隊操作模式可能有異於傳統儀控系統,而可能影響團隊溝通、團隊狀況察覺;運轉員從使用傳統儀控系統轉移到電腦儀控系統,也產生調適困難的問題。 台電公司興建核四廠,採用先進型儀控系統,為了確保儀控系統的可操作性、核能安全,一方面遵照NRC所要求的人因工程程序(NUREG-0711)和先進型儀控系統介面審查準則(NUREG-0700)督促廠商在儀控系統的開發必須遵循人因工程程序,設計需符合規範,另一方面對於先進型儀控系統可能發生的問題進行探討,提供工作規劃之重要參考。本研究的目的有三:(1)依據NRC NUREG-0711的規範與PSAR的承諾來探討人機介面V&V 本土化人因技術,並提出龍門計畫人機介面V&V計畫可再強化之重點,(2)對於先進型儀控系統人機互動可能發生的人因問題作探討,提出因應建議,和(3)協助舉辦人因工程研討會,以提升國內學術界對龍門計畫儀控系統的了解與接受度。本計劃預訂需時一年。
The human-system interface plays a vital role in the operation of a nuclear power plant. The operability of the human-system interface can have adverse impacts on operators performance, which in turn can affect productivity and safety of power generation. In a conventional control room, hundreds of analog displays and controls were dispersed on large panels. Operators have to search for plant information from several displays located at different places. As a result, they have high workload in gathering necessary information, interpreting them, and making decisions. To remedy this problem, digital display and control system is developed to replace the old analog system. By taking advantage of automation and display flexibility, computer-based interface can provide more data to operators and the system can automatically execute some actions which have been performed by operators before . It is expected to reduce operator workload and hence enhance operator performance. However, previous studies showed that digital display and control system could have negative effects. The information display, containing thousands of display pages, imposes high demand on interface management tasks which can interfere with operator's primary tasks. Moreover, control room team members have difficulty in sharing information and forming a shared mental model. To ensure the safety of operation, the development of human-system interface has to incorporate human factors practices in each development stage. The purpose of this project has three folds: (1) to identify appropriate human factors techniques which are applicable to the verification and validation of human-system interface, (2) to study potential human factors problems arisen from the adoption of digital display and control technology, and (3) to communicate the human factors effort being made by Taipower to the human factors community in Taiwan.
官方說明文件#: TPC-027J-94-2821-03
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/90802
https://www.grb.gov.tw/search/planDetail?id=1257398&docId=231324
Appears in Collections:Research Plans


Files in This Item:

  1. RRPG95070433.pdf