A Study on Fire-stop Engineering and Materials for Hospital Through-Compartments
In recent years, due to the prosperous development of domestic large-scale hospitals, the functions of these hospitals have become more and more complex. In the hospital, a large number of medical, air conditioning and living pipelines run through the walls of space divisions and compartments. If fire-stop engineering works are improperly constructed, the anti-fire divisions would fail to work. The fume/heat will spread out and cause serious casualties and property losses once a fire occurs. This study focuses on the design and materials of fire-stop engineering at holes running through hospital compartment walls. First, literature review is performed to make a comparison between Taiwan and Japan about the safety of zoning regulations and the hospital’s fire growth patterns and characteristics. Besides, in collecting relevant information on the major fire cases of Taiwan, America, and Japan, the study analyzes the heavy casualties and property losses caused by fire to discuss the importance of fire-stop engineering in hospital compartment safety. Next, a field survey of three hospitals in Tainan county and city is conducted. Because of their awareness of the difficult points and capability of providing recommendations, the opinions of the people familiar with the compartment safety and fire-stop engineering of hospitals such as design experts, government officials, and hospital administrators are sought through a questionnaire survey. Based on the survey data, the study analyzes the existing defects and common construction mistakes on fire-stop design at through-compartment holes. Striving to correct these deficiencies, the study proposes some fire-stop products and the proper construction procedure for hospital fire protection. The results obtained in this study are then used to establish an inspection standard of hospital’s fire-stop engineering. On the other hand, this study analyzes and compares the temperature levels between the products proposed in this study and the traditional fire-stop materials for the specific evacuation time. Traditional fire-stop materials such as foam materials can hardly resist fire because of low melting temperature (about 250~4000C). The cracking temperature of cement mortar is 6000C which can extend the evacuation time. But in many premises, the use of cement mortar cannot improve fire protection because of difficulty in construction and no certification on quality. The fire-stop products proposed in this study, however, can resist higher temperature and thus have more fire protection ability because of the domestic and foreign certification.