Establishing an Error-Proofing Production System for Automotive Welding Parts
|關鍵字:||防錯法;防誤法;愚巧法;持續改善;失效模式與效應分析;error proofing;mistake proofing;poka yoke;FMEA;continuous improvement|
|摘要:||台灣的汽車產業面臨市場飽和的瓶頸，為了維持國內市場佔有率與爭取外銷訂單，各製造廠多致力於產品品質的持續改善。除了統計製程管制（statistical process control）、六標準差（six sigma）等品質改善工具外，防錯法（error proofing）是一個能有效使用在製造現場以防止第一線工作人員疏忽造成之品質缺陷方法。
日本品質管理先驅新鄉重夫所發展之防錯法的改善工具，最早發源於日本電器製造業，美國三大汽車廠與ISO/TS16949品質管理系統亦明確對汽車零件供應商要求於產品實現過程應用防錯法。目前中、外文獻中探討防錯法實際應用的例子非常少見，有鑑於此，本研究整合團隊合作模式、失效模式與效應分析（failure measure and effects analysis, FMEA）與品質管制履歷（quality control story）等工具，建構了一套適用於汽車零件業在新產品開發過程與量產階段的生產製程防錯系統，以利於汽車零件供應商在新零件之開發階段即能有系統地規劃防錯方案，並在量產階段以防錯生產系統做為持續改善的手法。本研究將此系統實際應用於兩個某汽車製造廠之焊接零組件供應商，實施結果顯示本研究所提出方法確實可行與有效。|
The automotive industry in Taiwan is facing the market saturation. All manufacturers have been devoted themselves not only to continuously improve the product quality to maintain their home market share and but also to get more export orders. In addition to the well-known quality control tools, such as Statistical Process Control or Six Sigma, the application of error-proof is a very effective tool to prevent quality problems resulted from carelessness by first-line workers. The error proofing system (also called mistake proofing or poka yoke) proposed by Shingo, is originated from Japanese electrical manufacturers. The big three automotive makers in the USA and the ISO/TS16949 quality management system particularly request automotive component suppliers include the error proofing tools in their product realization. There are few studies explicitly discuss the application of error proofing tools in practice. Therefore, in this research, we design an error proofing production system for the manufacturing process of automotive welding parts in both new part development and mass production stages. Our system combines the application of team work, failure measure and effects analysis (FMEA), and quality control story. We aim at generating an error proofing plan in the new part development stage and suggesting a series of continuous improvement activities based on error-proofing techniques during mass production. Two case studies drawn from automotive welding part suppliers are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of our research.