標題: 大學生處理科學實驗異象的方法與態度:兼探其科學知識觀、實驗室環境及教師觀點之相關性
University students' strategies and attitudes of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory, with relations to their views about the nature of science, laboratory environments and teachers' views
作者: 邱羽立
Yu-Li Chiu
蔡今中
Chin-Chung Tsai
教育研究所
關鍵字: 挑戰性事件;科學實驗異象;科學知識觀;實驗室環境;大學普通化學實驗;challenging event;anomalous data in science laboratory;scientific epistemological views;laboratory environments;general chemistry laboratory course in university
公開日期: 2007
摘要: 本研究以學生面對實驗異象的反應為基礎,學生科學知識觀、實驗室環境與教師觀點為背景,探討大學生經由具挑戰性事件的實驗活動後,其科學知識觀的變化與處理實驗異象的策略、態度、反應的關係,同時探討實驗室環境與教師觀點在學生處理實驗異象的策略、態度、反應時所扮演的角色。 研究對象為修習大學普通化學與普通化學實驗之生命科學院三班大學一年級科學主修的學生,共157人。三班學生皆參與兩次具挑戰性事件之實驗活動,填寫科學觀點量表、科學實驗環境量表及繳交實驗異象報告。此外,依據學生實驗異象報告的豐富度,另挑選47位學生進行訪談並將訪談內容製作成逐字稿,以內容分析法進行分析。最後針對學生的科學觀點、偏好與實際的實驗環境及對實驗異象的反應、處理策略與處理態度進行分析。 本研究結果發現學生參與具挑戰性事件的實驗活動,藉由處理實驗異象的過程後,其科學知識觀分數於「理論滿載的探索」面向有顯著提升,而於「被發明且具創造力的科學本質」面向與「科學知識的暫時性與變動性特徵」面向則有顯著降低。顯示具挑戰性事件的實驗活動,藉由處理實驗異象的過程,確實可改變學生的科學知識觀,但需重視實驗環境及教師指導方式的開放程度。本研究也發現科學知識觀相對偏建構主義取向的學生偏好較開放的實驗室環境,以便從接近於科學家的方式來探索未知世界的本質。並且科學知識觀相對較偏建構主義取向的學生,其處理實驗異象的策略偏以β行為(重新解釋異象、周圍理論改變)的方式來進行,以其獲得接近理論改變的結果。 關鍵字:挑戰性事件、科學實驗異象、科學知識觀、實驗室環境、大學普通化學實驗
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among university students’ strategies and attitudes of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory, their views about the nature of science, scientific laboratory environments, and teachers’ views. The participants were a group of ninety-five Taiwanese science-major freshmen in a university, who enrolled in a general chemistry laboratory course for a semester, and seven Taiwanese science teachers in the university. The course implemented some inquiry-oriented and challenging open-ended laboratory exercises, called “challenging event”. The challenging event was used to challenge students’ perceptions toward anomalous data in science laboratory. The data sources were based on their responses to anomalous data in science laboratory. In qualitative data collections, students’ reports of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory, including their strategies and attitudes, were collected. Forty-seven students selected by the richness of their reports were interviewed after two months. The interview questions included nine perspectives: the purpose of the laboratory activity, the influence of laboratory activity in science learning, the influence of prior knowledge in laboratory activity, the influence of laboratory teaching in laboratory activity, students’ responses to anomalous data in science laboratory, students’ strategies of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory, students’ attitudes of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory, the influence of anomalous data in science laboratory to science learning, and the ways of responding to cross-subject anomalous data in science laboratory. In quantitative data collections, students’ responses to a multi-dimensional scientific epistemological view (SEV) questionnaire and to the Science Laboratory Environment Inventory (SLEI) for pretest and posttest were collected. The SEV questionnaire in this study, with adequate validity and reliability, included 19 items on the following four scales: the role of social negotiation on science (SN), the invented and creative reality of science (IC), the theory-laden exploration of science (TL), and the changing features of science (CT). Furthermore, the SLEI in this study included 35 items on the following four scales: student cohesiveness (SC), open-endedness (OE), integration (IT), rule clarity (RC), and material environment (ME). The result showed that students’ responses between pretest and posttest were statistically different in the scales of IC, TL, CT. Students’ scores increased in the scales of TL but decrease in the scale of IC and CT due to the certain answer given by teachers. The significant differences suggested that the chemistry course with inquiry-oriented laboratory practices may promote the development of the participants’ SEVs, but open-endedness environments needed to be improved. The study revealed that students’ scientific epistemological views were correlated to their strategies of responding to anomalous data in science laboratory and their satisfaction on science laboratory environments. The constructivist-oriented SEV students preferred to have more open-ended science laboratory environments, exploring the uncertain world of nature by a scientist-like way. Keywords: challenging event, anomalous data in science laboratory, scientific epistemological views, laboratory environments, general chemistry laboratory course in university
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009448525
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/81985
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