標題: 台、韓液晶顯示器產業供應鏈研究與利潤模式分析
The Supply Chain Study and Profit Pattern Analysis of Taiwan and Korea TFT-LCD Industry
作者: 劉佳明
Jia-Ming Liu
韓復華
Anthony F. Han
高階主管管理碩士學程
關鍵字: 液晶顯示器產業;利潤模式;供應鏈管理;TFT-LCD;Profit Patterns;Supply Chain Management
公開日期: 2007
摘要: 我國友達、奇美與韓國Samsung、LG這四大公司生產之液晶顯示器,在全球大尺寸顯示器市場之佔有率合計超過八成以上。本研究應用供應鏈與利潤模式兩個分析架構,以前述四大公司為例來探討與比較台灣、韓國液晶顯示器供應鏈結構的異同,並探討各公司在全球市場下如何持續競爭的不同利潤模式與策略。 在台、韓液晶顯示器產業供應鏈方面,本研究發現液晶顯示器產業即將邁入成熟期,其應用除了家用電視及公共顯示幕外,大都已經達到市場飽和。供應鏈完整性的比較,顯示出韓國略優於台灣,但在上游原料的建置上,台、韓都嫌不足。利用微笑曲線來探討供應鏈的價值分配,面板廠都處於底部獲利較差的位置。比較友達與奇美兩公司改進供應鏈完整性的做法,前者主要利用入股、併購來強化供應鏈的環節;後者則利用集團自行設廠的方式來建置完整的供應鏈,並著重於開發新產品、技術及品牌形象,策略較相似於韓國Samsung、LG。 在利潤模式的分析方面,本研究發現液晶顯示器產業技術已趨成熟,整體而言產業獲利微薄,即將落入巨量模式的無利潤區域。因此,各公司都展開不同策略模式企圖重新回到利潤區。友達以集中模式快速領先面板市佔率,利用聯友光電、達基及廣輝的合併,達到供應者的集中,再整合上游材料供應達到補充者集中的綜效。友達並宣佈未來全面採用LED背光源,且投資LED晶粒技術開發與供貨,作為企業對綠色產業的訴求,達到有效的知識模式與供應鏈模式的雙重提升。奇美則是利用科技改變局勢,試圖以領導型產品與技術的領先推出獲取較高利潤。奇美又規劃價值鏈中重新整合模式,從材料、IC驅動到設備都投資自己集團公司來供應,甚至又建立Polyvision 及奇美品牌形象,以便重新回到利潤區。韓國Samsung 率先完成7代線生產,掌握實際產業標準的能力,同時利用補充者集中的模式意圖重回利潤區。Samsung同時也著重在產品模式的品牌形象建立,並且與玻璃供應商美國康寧公司成立Samsung-Corning公司,與索尼合作七代線,與住友化學合作CF廠,再再顯示其強調組織模式的徹底運用; 因此Samsung之獲利相對較為穩定。LG則是利用補充者的集中,致力於新產品的開發,著重在從產品到代表作的展現,率先展出卷對卷可印刷式顯示器, 看得出要領先下一波創新產品的企業雄心。 縱而觀之,巨量模式是處於微笑曲線的底部,知識模式及通路模式分佔微笑曲線的兩端,組織模式反映供應鏈的合競策略。本論文除了探討面板廠重回利潤區的努力,也建議業界致力於上游關鍵材料供應的掌握,以及下游通路品牌的建立與新產品市場的開發。
Taiwan and Korea are two major countries supplying large size TFT-LCD to the global market. Manufacturers of AUO, CMO, Samsung and LGD together account for more than eighty percent of the global market. Using these four big companies as cases, this paper analyzed the similarities and differences of the TFT-LCD supply chain structures in Taiwan and Korea, and explored the profit patterns and competitive strategies of the four companies in the global market. Analyzing the supply chain structures of the TFT-LCD industry, we found that the industry is about to reach its maturity. Except for the product lines of home TV and public displays, most TFT-LCD products are facing a saturated market. Comparison of the supply chains in the two countries showed that Korea is slightly better than Taiwan in the integration power of the supply chain. However, both countries are lack of sufficient support of some upstream key-materials suppliers. Due to the industrial technology of TFT-LCD is almost mature, companies in this industry are basically in the low or no profit zone of the Mega patterns relying on big volumes. Based on the profit pattern analysis, we found that the four case companies each has developed its strategies to fight back to the profit zones using different profit patterns and approaches. In Taiwan, AUO adopts a supplier concentration pattern by merging ADT, UNIPAC and QDI to maintain its lead in the market. AUO also integrates the upstream materials suppliers to achieve complementary concentration patterns. The company recently moves to knowledge patterns and supply chain patterns by positioning itself as a major supplier of LED backlight embedded LCD products. The other company, CMO, adopts a supply chain reintegration pattern by setting up CMO-owned suppliers from materials, IC driver to equipment in the whole supply chain. CMO also focuses on the technology differentiation and tries to get higher profit margin through the development of new products and brand image such as Polyvision. In Korea, Samsung emphasizes organization profit patterns by cooperating with world-class suppliers like Corning, Sony, and Sumitomo Chemicals. Samsung thus takes the lead in the G-7 production line, and enjoys a higher and stable profit margin than others in the industry. On the other hand, LGD is more based on complementary concentration patterns. Nevertheless, LGD attends to the development of new next generation products such as the roll-to-roll printable display. This is a “from product to blockbuster” profit pattern on which LGD relies to maintain its lead in the industry. In summary, companies in a rather matured industry, such as TFT-LCD, are in fierce competition with low or no profit margins. Only those companies can develop successful back-to-profit strategies will survive. The different back-to-profit approaches of the four case companies that we discovered in this research may provide good lessons to managers in both the TFT-LCD industry and other industries alike.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009361518
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/79909
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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