標題: 兩岸消防法規比較及探討
Fire protection regulation comparison and study between Taiwan and Mainland China
作者: 吳中平
Chung-Ping Wu
陳俊勳
謝明宏
Chiun-Hsun Chen
Ming-Hong Hsieh
工學院產業安全與防災學程
關鍵字: 海峽兩岸;消防;法規比較;between Taiwan and Mainland China;Fire protection;regulation comparison
公開日期: 2004
摘要:   海峽兩岸經貿文化交流已逾十餘年,但就海峽兩岸的消防/防火標準與科技相關之比較、研究、探討等文獻並不多見,然兩岸文化與科技思維相同處甚多,且經濟發展模式相仿,但其法令研訂來源、系統架構與背景原由卻大異其趣。有鑑於此,本論文將探究兩岸法令演進、立法精神與制度差異及罰則比較與探討,以期發覺其優劣點,提供未來修法之參考。   本研究的方式為:(一)相關文獻及著作收集與分析。(二)兩岸消防從業人員之訪談。(三)近年重大災害事件剖析,包括消防署及保險公會之災害統計。(四)個人消防工作實務經驗分享。   本研究範圍主要概分為三部分:(一)由歷史的過程了解海峽兩岸消防法的演進:台灣早期消防規定附屬於建築法中,1985年訂定消防法。中國大陸的消防法規自1957年起以行政命令或規定做為依據,至1998年才制訂消防法,海峽兩岸開始重視消防及防災的法規(二)海峽兩岸之消防法條文比較與探討:兩岸消防法在立法精神上則大同小異,但立法精神與制度略有差異,僅就管理權人、防火管理人、公眾使用建築物、消防防護計劃書、檢修申報等重要制度做為比較探討。(三)海峽兩岸消防法罰則比較與探討:包含刑責規定、未遂犯的處罰、及地方自治規定等做為研究。   研究結果顯示,台灣應於消防法中昭示並建立消防的精神與制度,如救災的榮譽觀念、保險規定、依產業特性所需之特別規定、公共場所額定人數規定等等,應納入消防法或相關子法之中。就大陸消防法而論,義勇救災人員傷亡撫卹法有明定,而無標準。公安部第61號令之適法性、滅火和應急疏散預案管理方式為自存備查,可能造成火災的重要原因等。   海峽兩岸消防法所需改善處甚多,未來修法應將防災制度、法律條文作更有效的規定,避免法律與社會資源重複浪費,以期謀求海峽兩岸未來長遠之知識經濟發展與救災資源調和,趨使海峽兩岸在安全防災領域居國際領導地位,開創以人本為核心之救災體系。
 The trading and culture interchange between the Taiwan Straits has been going for over ten years, but not very much in publications related to comparison, research, and study of fire protection standards and technology. Although there are many similarities in culture and thinking of technology, and economic development model between Taiwan and Mainland China, the root of the regulations, system structure, and background are quite different. Therefore, this thesis is to compare and study the differences in the development of regulations, spirit of legislation, and punishment between Taiwan and Mainland China, and to find out their advantages and disadvantages for used as a reference in future law modifications.  The methods used by this research include:(1)Collection and analysis of related publications and writings. (2) Interview of people working in the field of fire protection of Taiwan and Mainland China. (3) Analysis of major disasters in recent years, including the disaster statistics from the National Fire Agency and the Insurance Association, and (4) Personal fire protection working experience sharing.  The scope of this research can be divided into three parts:(1)Understand the development of Fire Acts of Taiwan and Mainland China from the history:The Fire Act of Taiwan was a subsidiary in the building regulation, and was legislated in 1985. While the Fire Act of Mainland used administrative order or regulation as the authority. The Fire Act had not been legislated until 1998. Both Taiwan and Mainland started to care about the regulation of fire protection and disaster rescue since then.(2)The comparison and study of Fire Acts between the Taiwan Strait:The spirit of legislation of Fire Acts of Taiwan and Mainland China are similar, but there are still some differences in the system and spirit. Only important systems like the administrator, fire prevention manager, building for public use, fire protection plan, and inspection and reporting will be compared and discussed.。(3)The comparison and study of punishment in Fire Acts between Taiwan and Mainland China:Including regulations about criminal responsibility, punishment of uncommitted criminal, and localized administration regulation.  The research result shows that Taiwan should declare and establish the spirit and system of fire protection in the Fire Act, such as the honor of rescue, insurance regulation, special regulation required for specific industry characteristics, rating of number of people in public place, these should all be included in Fire Act or related subsidiary regulations. For Fire Act of Mainland China, the compensation of injury or death of voluntary rescuers is clearly written, but not standardized. The applicability of Order No. 61 of the Ministry of Public Security, the fire fighting, and self management of emergency preplanning, major causes of fire, etc.  There are still a lot need to be improved in the Fire Acts of Taiwan and Mainland China. More effective regulations is needed in disaster prevention system, law regulation to avoid overlap and waste of law and social resources, and to look for harmonization of disaster rescue resources and long term development of knowledge and economics of Taiwan and Mainland China, and to bring both Taiwan and Mainland to the international leading status in the field of safety and disaster prevention, and create a disaster rescue system with human as the core.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT008966529
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/79803
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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