Life Cycle Assessment of PBGA Substrates
|關鍵字:||塑膠球型柵狀陣列基板（PBGA）;生命週期評估;環境衝擊;封裝;PBGA（Plastic Ball Grid Array Substrates）;LCA（Life Cycle Assessment）;EI（Environment Impact）;Packaging|
PBGA substrates are the key material of semiconductor chips during packaging process. They are the bridge connecting external circuits of the IC chips. Because the PBGA packaging method is a break-through over the original Peripheral Packaging technique, it enables high speed chip function. Besides, It is thinner than the Peripheral Packaging frame, which meets the lighter, thinner, shorter, smaller and good heat dissipation demand of electronic products. There are lots of different materials and chemicals used in the PBGA process. This study investigates the environmental impact of PBGA product during its life cycle in actual PBGA plants. The input of raw materials, the data of production, the emission of pollutants and the disposal of waste were surveyed in the plants. Then the Life Cycle Assessment and the environment impact were conducted. This study also studies the influence of different layers of the substrates and the different inventory scopes on the results of Life Cycle Assessment. The software used for Life Cycle Assessment is Doitpro, which was developed by Industrial Technology Research Institute. Eco-Indicater95 is used in the environment impact model to quantify and guide the environment impact. It is found that there are around 2,700 kinds of direct and indirect raw materials used in the PBGA industry. Its complicity is similar to that of semiconductor industry. The largest impact to the environment is the consumption of water resources, followed by the usage of energy resources, and the last is the production of solid waste. The factory without achieving the full capacity is found to consume more energy to maintain its normal operation resulting in larger impact to the environment. Moreover, the study of the muti-layer products has found that the consumption of raw materials and energy resources is reduced per layer of the product, or the loading and impact to the environment are decreased. Therefore, the advanced product with more layers is friendlier to the environment, and it is positive to the development of the PBGA industry. In the analysis of different inventory scopes, it is found that using 70% and 80% of the overall raw materials produces environmental impact results which are within 15 % of those produced by using 100 % raw materials. That is, the difference in the results is small. Therefore for the PBGA product, the commonly requirement of 85 % overall raw materials can be reduced to 70 % to obtain a representative result of life cycle assessment. This can ease the difficulty in information gathering, and it saves time and manpower.