標題: 論辯與主張的權威性對知識探究之影響
The Effects of Argumentation and Authority on Knowledge Inquiry
作者: 林孜蓉
Tzu-Jung Lin
洪瑞雲
Ruey-Yun Horng
工業工程與管理學系
關鍵字: 論辯;權威;知識探究;科學發現;argumentation;authority;knowledge inquiry;scientific discovery
公開日期: 2005
摘要: 本研究目的在探討論辯與主張的權威性對知識探究的影響。95位大學生被隨機分派到2 (論辯、無論辯) × 2(權威者的主張、非權威者的主張) 四組實驗情境之中,分別閱讀一個科學發現議題(憂鬱症的成因)與一個科技應用議題(自動公路系統的效用)的主張內容。論辯組隨後被要求由原主張者的立場出發,對該主張可以成立、不能成立的理由進行論辯。無論辯組則在這段時間進行自由思考活動。兩組大學生最後都被要求回憶主張內容,並對該議題提出自己的主張及論辯。以2(論辯) × 2(權威) × 2(議題)三因子變異數分析對受試者的自由回憶及為自己主張進行論辯的內容中所含的命題種類及數量進行分析,結果發現論辯可增加人們多加思考自己立場可以成立的理由、提昇人對新概念與新命題的聯想、並加強人們對證據的使用。此外,論辯也有助於人對自己立場可以成立之理由的澄清,減少立場搖擺不定的情形發生,並且能夠降低人們被主張說服的程度。資料也顯示,論辯沒有提昇人們對文章的理解程度,而主張的權威性會干擾受試者對文章理解的正確性,並且提高人對科學發現主張的接受程度。在主張的議題方面,本研究發現大學生對科學發現與科技應用議題的回憶與論辯表現有所不同,可能和科學發現議題的論辯困難度較高有關。
Ninety-five college students were randomly assigned to the 2 (argumentation vs. non-argumentation) × 2 (authority’s vs. non-authority’s claim) × 2 (science vs. technology issue) experimental conditions in which issue of the claim was a within-subject variable. After exposure to a claim (a scientific explanation of depression or the efficiency of an automatic highway system), subjects in argumentation conditions were asked to argue for the claim according to the argument structure provided by the experimenter, while subjects in non-argumentation conditions were taking a eight-minute break. Then, subjects were asked to free recall the content of the claim and argue for their own position. Results showed that argumentation increased the number of new concepts 、 new propositions and the usage of evidence entertained by subjects when they encountered a claim regarding some state of knowledge, while paid no extra cost to the comprehension of the information. Whether or not the claim comes from an authority might affect one’s acceptance of the claim, and the effect may vary depending on the science or technology nature of the issue.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009333506
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/79466
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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