Title: Achieving high-efficiency non-doped blue organic light-emitting diodes: charge-balance control of bipolar blue fluorescent materials with reduced hole-mobility
Authors: Chi, Chih-Chin
Chiang, Chih-Long
Liu, Shun-Wei
Yueh, Han
Chen, Chin-Ti
Chen, Chao-Tsen
Department of Applied Chemistry
Issue Date: 2009
Abstract: We found an unusual way in improving electroluminescence efficiency of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Two electron deficient 4,5-diazafluorene- or di(2,2'-pyridyl)-containing blue fluorophores, PhSP(N2)DPV (4,5-diaza-2'-diphenylamino-7'-(2,2"-diphenylvinyl)-9,9'-spirobifluorene) and PhF(py2)DPV (N-[7-(2,2- diphenylvinyl)- 9,9'-di(2,2"-pyridyl)-2-fluorenyl]-N,N-diphenylamine), were synthesized and characterized for non-doped blue OLEDs. Whereas PhF(py2)DPV OLED performs ordinarily, PhSP(N2)DPV OLED outperforms previously known PhSPDPV (2-diphenylamino-7-diphenylvinyl-9,9'-spirobifluorene) OLED significantly: maximum external quantum efficiency of similar to 5% (4.6% at 20 mA cm(-2)) and the peak electroluminance of 60510 cd m(-2) (1810 cd m(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2)) versus 3.4% (2.9% at 20 mA cm(-2)) and 33020 cd m(-2) (910 cd m(-2) at 20 mA cm(-2)) of PhSPDPV OLED. We attribute the superior performance of PhSP(N2)DPV OLED to the good charge balancing, which is in turn due to the very low hole mobility of PhSP(N2)DPV. The experimental results reveal that the electron-deficient moiety, 4,5-diazafluorene or di(2,2'-dipyridyl), increases electron affinity but reduces the hole mobility. Electron mobility, determined by time-of-flight (TOF) method, is 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (at an electric field of 4.9 x 10(5) V cm(-1)) for PhSP(N2)DPV and PhF(py2)DPV, respectively. Surprisingly, they are not higher than 8 x 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) of nonpolar PhSPDPV. On the other hand, hole mobility is 2 x 10(-6) and 2 x 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) for PhSP(N2)DPV and PhF(py2)DPV, respectively, and they are both significantly lower than 6 x 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) of PhSPDPV. For PhSP(N2)DPV and PhF(py2)DPV bipolar blue fluorophores, we have demonstrated that electron-transporting and light-emitting functions involve different molecular halves. The design of such molecular halves greatly facilitates the optical and electronic optimizations of fluorophores for high-performance OLEDs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/7866
ISSN: 0959-9428
DOI: 10.1039/b902910a
Volume: 19
Issue: 31
Begin Page: 5561
End Page: 5571
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