標題: 新竹市都市空間體系的建構與擴展
Formation and Expansion of Urban Space System in Hsin-Chu City
作者: 陳章賢
Chen, Chang-Hsien
黃玉霖
工學院工程技術與管理學程
關鍵字: 新竹;都市空間體系;市區改正;市區計畫;都市計畫;Hsin-Chu;Urban Space System;City Reform;City Planning;Urban Planning
公開日期: 2008
摘要: 新竹市位於台灣本島之西北部,介於台北市與台中市之地理中心,早期由於腹地不大,且河港條件不良,僅能行駛小舟,又經常淤積。因此開發天然資源條件比起臺灣的南部及北部而言,相對較差;在大清帝國將淡水廳的廳治設在竹塹以前,其實質的開發情形也處於相對落後的狀況。設治後,由於大批軍事及政務人員的進駐,及其衍生性服務人口的聚集,使得新竹市一躍而成為北臺灣的政治、商業、文化及教育中心。但隨著國際貿易的開展和茶葉價值的不斷提昇,北臺灣的商業及政治中心漸漸被臺北所取代。及至日本政府統治臺灣,為解決環境衛生問題,引進西方的都市規畫理念,將格子狀市街融入清領時期的放射狀街道紋理中,新竹市的現代化都市空間乃開始建構。爾後百年間,這個空間結構隨著鐵、公路網的相繼成型,其空間體系亦不斷地擴展與轉變。本研究即以新竹市都市空間體系的建構與擴展歷程做為研究課題,藉由分析相關史料的涵義來解讀空間組織變遷的過程,並為充分了解新竹市空間變遷的原因,對於整個台灣大環境的轉變重點亦做一概要性的探討與說明。 整體而言,本文探討內容分為四個部分,其中包括: 1. 自然環境與早期發展 敘述新竹市的環境條件,以及從史前時代、荷西時期到明鄭時代,臺灣及竹塹發生了那些事情,並分析臺灣早期的主人原住民(尤其是平埔族)的生活及其遺留的痕跡。 2. 大清帝國統治時期 描繪大清帝國的治臺政策、漢人進入竹塹的開墾過程、以及原本屬於平埔族的地權如何流失到漢人的手中,並探討淡水廳設治在竹塹和竹塹築城的歷史與原因,並分析交通及市街等土地利用情形。 3. 日本帝國統治時期 探討日治政府在新竹市推行市區改正計畫的目的,以及四次擴大計畫行動的內容,尤其最後一次在都市計畫階段的大幅度擴張,對新竹市現今都市空間發展的影響。 本文並針對街道網絡、主要城市設施及空間發展脈絡三個主軸探討空間的內涵。在分析這三個主軸時,可以清晰見到交通網絡是由原先集中於清代同知署(今城隍廟附近)到後來集中於火車站的輻射狀網絡系統所構建;而設施用地則是由原集中於核心區域到均勻散佈於已區劃的市街中;在空間發展脈絡上,由於受到天然地形及機場設置的影響,日治初期以東側為優先發展地區,末期則以東側及東南側的拓展較為深遠。 4. 現代都市空間體系的擴展 二次戰後新竹市的都市計畫作業停頓了十一年,且當時之都市建設皆沿用日治時期制定之規範,因此日治時期建構的空間體系成為民國時期擴展的基石;隨著經濟高速成長,新竹市的都市建設於1975 年後迅速啟動,空間範圍漸次往郊區擴張,尤其新竹科學園區設立後,在空間體系上有漸漸發展成為另一個都市核心推動引擎的趨勢。 在空間體系建構與擴展的過程中,新竹市所提供的經驗是相當特殊的,清領時期是一個在幾近未開發的土地上,由於地理區位的適中,經由政治決策的選擇所建構出來的市街;日治及民國時期則由於天然資源的豐富及地理區位的考量,發展成為工業生產的重鎮。
Hsin-Chu City is situated at the northwestern part of Taiwan Island, whose geographic center is between Taipei City and Taichung City. Because its hinterland is not large and its conditions for inland harbor are not good, only small boats can sail there, while siltation often comes into existence. Therefore, it earlier conditions for exploiting natural resources were comparatively poorer than those of Taiwan’s southern part and northern part. Before Qing Empire set the county seat of Dan Shui Hall in Chu Chen, its actual development situations fell behind comparatively. After the county seat was set, Hsin-Chu City became the center of politics, commerce, culture and education in Northern Taiwan swiftly, because numerous military and political personnel resided in and the population of derivative services congregated here. However, as international trade evolved and the value of tealeaves increased continuously, the center of commerce and politics in Northern Taiwan was replaced by Taipei gradually. Until Japanese Government ruled Taiwan, Hsin-Chu City’s modern urban space began to be formed, because the western conception of urban planning was introduced, in which the lattice-shape street lines were integrated into the radial street lines in Qing Dynasty, in order to solve the problem of environmental hygiene. During the later 100 years, as the networks of railways and highways formed their shapes successively, the space system of such a space structure had also been expanding and changing continuously. This study bases on the process of formation and expansion of Hsin-Chu City’s urban space system as the research issue, and the process of the changes in space organizations have been interpreted through analyzing the meanings and contents of related history data. Besides, in order to fully understand the causes of the changes in Hsin-Chu City’s space, the generalized explorations and explanations have also been made, aiming at the key points in the changes in the whole Taiwan environment. Generally speaking, the contents of the study’s explorations are divided into four parts, including: 1. Natural environment and early developments: Hsin-Chu City’s environmental conditions have been discussed, as well as what had happened in Taiwan and Chi Chen, since Pre-historic Times, Holland and Spain Period, to Ming Cheng Times. Also, the existence of indigenous people— the masters of early Taiwan (especially Pingpu Tribe) — as well as their traces of legacy has been analyzed. 2. The Ruling Period of Qing Empire Qing Empire’s policies for ruling Taiwan, the process that Han People entered Chu Chen to break ground, and how the land ownership originally belonging to Pingpu Tribe had been transferred to Han People have been described. Also, the history of and the causes for setting the county seat of Dan Shui Hall in Chu Chen as well as the construction of Chu Chen city walls have been explored. Besides, the situations of land utilization such as traffic and urban streets have also been analyzed. 3. The Ruling Period of Japanese Empire The purposes why Japanese Colonial Government promoted city reform plans in Hsin-Chu City, as well as the contents of the four movements of expansion plans, have been explored, especially the influences on the development of Hsin-Chu City’s present urban space caused by the last substantial expansion in the stage of urban planning This article has also explored the connotation of space, aiming at the three main shafts—street networks, major urban infrastructures and the context of space development. When the three main shafts were being analyzed, it could be seen clearly that the traffic network was formed by the radial network system which was originally centered on Tong-chi Office (near City God Temple today) in Qing Dynasty but was centered on the railroad station later; besides, the lands used for infrastructures distributed evenly over the organized urban streets, from the originally centered core region. As for the context of space development, due to the influences caused by natural terrains and the installation of airport, during early Japanese Colonial Period, the east side was the region with the priority in developments; but, in the late period, the east side and the southeast side were developed more profoundly. 4. The expansion of nowadays urban space system After the Second World War, Hsin-Chu City’s urban planning operations had been postponed for 11 years. Besides, the regulations established during Japanese Colonial Period were continued being used for urban planning at that time. Therefore, the space system formed during Japanese Colonial Period has become the cornerstone for the expansion in the period of the Republic of China. As its economy grows in high speed, Hsin-Chu City’s urban constructions have been activated since 1975, and its space range has expanded to the suburbs gradually. Especially, after Hsin-Chu Science Park was established, the trend goes like that it has evolved gradually to be another driving engine of urban core in the space system. During the process of formation and expansion of urban space system, the experience provided by Hsin-Chu City is very unique. In the Ruling Period of Qing Empire, due to its well-situated geographic location, its urban streets were formed through the choices of political decisions, on the land with bare developments. During Japanese Colonial Period and in the period of the Republic of China, it has evolved to be an important city for industrial production, due to its rich natural resources as well as the consideration for geographic location.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009270526
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/77851
顯示於類別:畢業論文


文件中的檔案:

  1. 052601.pdf
  2. 052602.pdf
  3. 052603.pdf