Formation and Expansion of Urban Space System in Hsin-Chu City
|關鍵字:||新竹;都市空間體系;市區改正;市區計畫;都市計畫;Hsin-Chu;Urban Space System;City Reform;City Planning;Urban Planning|
Hsin-Chu City is situated at the northwestern part of Taiwan Island, whose geographic center is between Taipei City and Taichung City. Because its hinterland is not large and its conditions for inland harbor are not good, only small boats can sail there, while siltation often comes into existence. Therefore, it earlier conditions for exploiting natural resources were comparatively poorer than those of Taiwan’s southern part and northern part. Before Qing Empire set the county seat of Dan Shui Hall in Chu Chen, its actual development situations fell behind comparatively. After the county seat was set, Hsin-Chu City became the center of politics, commerce, culture and education in Northern Taiwan swiftly, because numerous military and political personnel resided in and the population of derivative services congregated here. However, as international trade evolved and the value of tealeaves increased continuously, the center of commerce and politics in Northern Taiwan was replaced by Taipei gradually. Until Japanese Government ruled Taiwan, Hsin-Chu City’s modern urban space began to be formed, because the western conception of urban planning was introduced, in which the lattice-shape street lines were integrated into the radial street lines in Qing Dynasty, in order to solve the problem of environmental hygiene. During the later 100 years, as the networks of railways and highways formed their shapes successively, the space system of such a space structure had also been expanding and changing continuously. This study bases on the process of formation and expansion of Hsin-Chu City’s urban space system as the research issue, and the process of the changes in space organizations have been interpreted through analyzing the meanings and contents of related history data. Besides, in order to fully understand the causes of the changes in Hsin-Chu City’s space, the generalized explorations and explanations have also been made, aiming at the key points in the changes in the whole Taiwan environment. Generally speaking, the contents of the study’s explorations are divided into four parts, including: 1. Natural environment and early developments: Hsin-Chu City’s environmental conditions have been discussed, as well as what had happened in Taiwan and Chi Chen, since Pre-historic Times, Holland and Spain Period, to Ming Cheng Times. Also, the existence of indigenous people— the masters of early Taiwan (especially Pingpu Tribe) — as well as their traces of legacy has been analyzed. 2. The Ruling Period of Qing Empire Qing Empire’s policies for ruling Taiwan, the process that Han People entered Chu Chen to break ground, and how the land ownership originally belonging to Pingpu Tribe had been transferred to Han People have been described. Also, the history of and the causes for setting the county seat of Dan Shui Hall in Chu Chen as well as the construction of Chu Chen city walls have been explored. Besides, the situations of land utilization such as traffic and urban streets have also been analyzed. 3. The Ruling Period of Japanese Empire The purposes why Japanese Colonial Government promoted city reform plans in Hsin-Chu City, as well as the contents of the four movements of expansion plans, have been explored, especially the influences on the development of Hsin-Chu City’s present urban space caused by the last substantial expansion in the stage of urban planning This article has also explored the connotation of space, aiming at the three main shafts—street networks, major urban infrastructures and the context of space development. When the three main shafts were being analyzed, it could be seen clearly that the traffic network was formed by the radial network system which was originally centered on Tong-chi Office (near City God Temple today) in Qing Dynasty but was centered on the railroad station later; besides, the lands used for infrastructures distributed evenly over the organized urban streets, from the originally centered core region. As for the context of space development, due to the influences caused by natural terrains and the installation of airport, during early Japanese Colonial Period, the east side was the region with the priority in developments; but, in the late period, the east side and the southeast side were developed more profoundly. 4. The expansion of nowadays urban space system After the Second World War, Hsin-Chu City’s urban planning operations had been postponed for 11 years. Besides, the regulations established during Japanese Colonial Period were continued being used for urban planning at that time. Therefore, the space system formed during Japanese Colonial Period has become the cornerstone for the expansion in the period of the Republic of China. As its economy grows in high speed, Hsin-Chu City’s urban constructions have been activated since 1975, and its space range has expanded to the suburbs gradually. Especially, after Hsin-Chu Science Park was established, the trend goes like that it has evolved gradually to be another driving engine of urban core in the space system. During the process of formation and expansion of urban space system, the experience provided by Hsin-Chu City is very unique. In the Ruling Period of Qing Empire, due to its well-situated geographic location, its urban streets were formed through the choices of political decisions, on the land with bare developments. During Japanese Colonial Period and in the period of the Republic of China, it has evolved to be an important city for industrial production, due to its rich natural resources as well as the consideration for geographic location.