Studies on the Protection of Trade Dress in Trademark Law--Focusing on the Legal Protections and Cases in the U.S. and Taiwan
|關鍵字:||商標;營業包裝;立體商標;表徵;顯著性;非功能性;次要意義;trademark;trade dress;three-dimensional trademark;configuration;distinctiveness;non-functionality;secondary meaning|
|摘要:||我國的商標法在民國九十二年四月二十九日立法院修正通過，同年五月二十八日總統公布，且同年十一月二十八日正施行。在新修正的商標法中，第五條增訂了保護「立體商標」的法律依據，為我國首次將三度空間的立體形狀或其與文字、圖形、記號、顏色的聯合式納入商標法的立法保護中，使我國對於商標的保護從傳統上的二維平面標記擴充到三度空間的立體形狀。然而美國1946年的聯邦商標法「藍能法案」（the Lanham Act）在1988年修正時將未經註冊的「營業包裝」（trade dress）正式規定於第43節(a)中，我國商標法上的立體商標究竟是否與美國法上所稱之「營業包裝」概念上是否相同？兩者間保護的種類、範圍與內容是否一致？和我國在民國八十年二月四日立法院制定總統公布，民國八十一年二月四日施行，民國八十八年二月三日修正公布的公平交易法第二十條所規定之「表徵」概念上是否相同？諸多有關的問題均值得探討研究。
The recent amendment to the Trademark Law of the Republic of China was passed by the Legislative Yuan on April 29th, 2003, announced by the President on May 28th and officially implemented on November 28th in the same year. In the amended trademark law, the protection of the three-dimensional trademark was added in the revised Article 5 for the legal basis. It is the first time in our country that the three-dimensional figure or its combinations with words, graphics, devices and colors are included in the legal protection of trademark law, enabling our country to expand the traditional two-dimensional devices to the three-dimensional figures with respect to the protection of the trademark. However, the U.S. federal trademark legislation in 1946: the Lanham Act officially provided the protection of the unregistered trade dress in the section 43(a) in the 1988 amendment. Is the three-dimensional trademark in our amended trademark law of 2003 in the world conceptually the same as the so-called “trade dress” in the U.S. trademark law? Are the types, scopes and contents between both the protection of the three-dimensional trademark and trade dress consistent? And is the “trade dress” provided in the U.S. trademark law conceptually the same as the“configurations”provided in the Article 20 of the Fair Trade Law, which was passed by the Legislative Yuan and announced by the President on February 4th, 1991, and officially implemented on February 4th in 1992, and then amended on February 3rd, 1999? Many questions are worth discussing and researching. Therefore, this article collects and researches the related important cases and scholars’ academic papers, and firstly begins from the U.S. trademark legislations and cases to study the concept, function, its scope and content of the “trade dress”, discussing the distinctiveness and non-functional requirements for the protection of "trade dress” in the U.S., and studies the related cases of “configuration” provided in the Fair Trade Law, and further analyzes the concepts, scopes and contents for legal protection among the three-dimensional trademark, trade dress and configuration for the purpose of fulfilling the protection of three-dimensional trademarks in the newly amended Trademark Law as our practicing reference, and finally submits the suggestions for the future amendments to the Trademark Law with respect to fulfilling the protection of three-dimensional trademarks.