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dc.contributor.authorLiao, Szu-Hungen_US
dc.contributor.authorShiu, Jin-Rueien_US
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Shun-Weien_US
dc.contributor.authorYeh, Shi-Jayen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Yu-Hungen_US
dc.contributor.authorChen, Chin-Tien_US
dc.contributor.authorChow, Tahsin J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorWu, Chih-Ien_US
dc.description.abstractA series of group III metal chelates have been synthesized and characterized for the versatile application of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). These metal chelates are based on 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine derivates as chelating ligands, and they are the blue version analogues of well-known green fluorophore Alq(3) (tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum). These chelating ligands and their metal chelates were easily prepared with an improved synthetic method, and they were facially purified by a sublimation process, which enables the materials to be readily available in bulk quantity and facilitates their usage in OLEDs. Unlike most currently known blue analogues of Alq(3) or other deep blue materials, metal chelates of 4-hydroxy-1,5-naphthyridine exhibit very deep blue fluorescence, wide band gap energy, high charge carrier mobility, and superior thermal stability. Using a vacuum-thermal-deposition process in the fabrication of OLEDs, we have successfully demonstrated that the application of these unusal hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates can be very versatile and effective. First, we have solved or alleviated the problem of exciplex formation that took place between the hole-transporting layer and hydroxynaphthyridine metal chelates, of which OLED application has been prohibited to date. Second, these deep blue materials can play various roles in OILED application. They can be a highly efficient nondopant deep blue emitter: maximum external quantum efficiency (eta ext) of 4.2%; Commision Internationale de L'Eclairage x, y coordinates, CIE(x,y) = 0.15, 0.07. Compared with Alq(3), Bebqp(2) (beryllium bis(benzoquinolin-10-olate)), or TPBI (2,2',2 ''-(1,3,5-phenylene)tris(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole), they are a good electron-transporting material: low HOMO energy level of 6.4-6.5 eV and not so high LUMO energy level of 3.0 3.3 eV. They can be ambipolar and possess a high electron mobility of 10(-4) cm(2)/V s at an electric field of 6.4 x 10(5) V/cm. They are a qualified wide band gap host material for efficient blue perylene (CIE(x,y) = 0.14, 0.17 and maximum (eta ext) 3.8%) or deep blue 9,10-diphenylanthracene (CIE(x,y) = 0.15, 0.06 and maximum (eta ext) 2.8%). For solid state lighting application, they are desirable as a host material for yellow dopant (rubrene) in achieving high efficiency ((eta ext) 4.3% and (eta P) 8.7 lm/W at an electroluminance of 100 cd/m(2) or (eta ext) 3.9% and (eta P) 5.1 lm/W at an electroluminance of 1000 cd/m(2)) white electroluminescence (CIE(x,y) = 0.30, 0.35).en_US
dc.titleHydroxynaphthyridine-Derived Group III Metal Chelates: Wide Band Gap and Deep Blue Analogues of Green Alq(3) (Tris(8-hydroxyquinolate)aluminum) and Their Versatile Applications for Organic Light-Emitting Diodesen_US
dc.contributor.departmentDepartment of Applied Chemistryen_US
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