標題: 公共領域在數位環境中面臨的衝擊
The Impact on Public Domain in the Digital Environment
作者: 林聖斌
Sheng-Pin Lin
王敏銓
Min-Chiuan Wang
科技法律研究所
關鍵字: 公共領域;內容產業;圈地運動;自由軟體運動;維基百科;創作共享授權條款;public domain;content industry;enclosure movement;free software movement;Wikipedia;Creative Commons
公開日期: 2005
摘要: 著作權法乃一部與科技發展關係頗為密切的法律,凡有關著作物生產、流布與使用的科技變遷,皆有可能牽動當代著作權法規範的修訂。近十餘年來,由於數位及網路科技的蓬勃發展,使得社會大眾接觸使用各式著作物的方式產生了莫大的變動,主要是反映在創作方式的多元化以及流通管道的擴充等。數位及網路科技為社會大眾帶來諸多便利之餘,卻撼動了內容產業長久以來採用的經營模式。除了主張著作物銷售或授權的獲利嚴重減損之外,內容產業業者亦發現其逐漸無法完全掌控著作物的流通。於是,向立法機關進行遊說,透過修法來擴張著作權保護範疇,或是自行架設科技保護措施,以鞏固其既有利益,便成了可以想見的反制手段。 由於科技或環境條件的變遷,致使既有規範有所不備,因而進行修法甚至是擴張權利保護範疇,以作為因應,本是無可厚非。不過,在這次的科技變遷時刻當中,法律不但沒有為數位及網路科技預留一些喘息空間,反而還大力地加以阻絕,同時也波及到了公共領域。社會大眾對於公共領域的「通念」,顯然尚未完全覺醒。 本文初步探討了目前公共領域遭受衝擊的幾個面向,包括「圈地運動」等上位概念、著作權人大量援用有體財產權概念與術語的可能結果與策略考量以及媒體集中化的現象。此外,被架設來阻絕對於著作物的任意接觸使用的科技保護措施、內容產業遊說國會通過的「著作權期間延長法」與「數位千禧年著作權法」以及目前正在推動的資料庫保護相關法案,皆對於公共領域造成重大威脅,故亦在本文探討之列。 然而,觀諸幾個正在全球各地推行的公共領域復興運動,我們可以發現,有關公共領域的通念,似乎正在覺醒當中。本文介紹了數個目前正致力於充實公共領域內涵、促進創作素材自由流通的創作計劃,包括自由軟體運動、維基百科、Creative Commons等,並試圖歸納其共通的核心精神,同時探索其蘊含的民主功能。 除了鼓勵公共領域復興運動的推行與參與之外,本文尚對於著作權政策提出些許粗淺的看法,期望一般民眾在著作權政策制定過程中能取得足夠的發聲機會,公共領域的功能與價值也能夠獲得應有的重視,以促進人類文化創作活動的提昇。
Copyright law is deeply related to the development of technology. All technological transitions about the production, distribution and use of works might trigger the revision of contemporary copyright law. In recent ten years, the vigorous development of digital and Internet technology alters the ways through which people access creative works, including the diversification of the ways of creation and increases of distribution channels. Besides bringing much convenience, digital and Internet technology shakes the business model which content industries have adopted for a long time. In addition to arguing the subtraction of profits from selling or licensing works, content industries discover that they gradually cannot control the circulation of creative works. In order to consolidate their vested interest, lobbing the legislature to expand the scope of copyright and building technological protection measures are foreseeable responses. It is acceptable to modify laws, even to expand the scope of protection, to deal with the regulations made inadequate by the transitions of technology or environment. However, in the current moment of technological transition, the laws do not preserve breathing space for digital and Internet technology but suppress its potential. The impact spreads to public domain simultaneously. Obviously, the “common sense” of public domain has not awakened completely. This thesis preliminarily explores several impacts on public domain, including the concept of “enclosure movement”, the possible outcome and strategic consideration of the rhetoric of property invoked by copyright holders, and the phenomenon of centralization of media. Furthermore, technological protection measures which is used to block unauthorized access, the “Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act”, the “Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998”, and several draft legislations for protecting databases pushed by content industries are all reviewed in the thesis because of their threat to the public domain. However, by observing several restoration movements of public domain in the world, we can find that the common sense of public domain is awakening. This thesis will introduce several creative projects which are devoted to nourishing the public domain and promoting the free circulation of creative materials, including the free software movement, Wikipedia and Creative Commons. This thesis will attempt to summarize their core spirit in common and explore the democratic implication. In addition to encouraging the introduction and participation of restoration movements of public domain, this thesis made several suggestions . On the purpose of promoting the creative activities of human culture, it is hoped that ordinary people could get enough chances to express their opinions in the process of developing copyright policies, and the function and value of public domain should be taken seriously.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009238502
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/77315
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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