標題: 創新政策與產業策略: 比較型與接續型研究
Innovation Policies and Industry Strategies: A Comparative and Successive Research
作者: 林志杰
Lin, Chih-Chieh
Lin, Tyng-Ruu
關鍵字: 國家創新政策;比較型與接續型研究;半導體政策與產業策略;供應鏈發展;多準則決策模式;National innovation policy;comparative & Successibe reseach;MCDM;Semiconductor policy and industrial strategy;Supply-chain development strategy
公開日期: 2015
摘要: 自1970年代以來, 興盛的高科技產業發展被認為是開發中國家或地區經濟發展的關鍵因素,證諸世界各國發展,由各國政府所主導的有效且高品質國家創新政策確實可以結合企業適當的商業經營以提升整體產業與經濟發展。 首先,本研究細數並分析台灣與新加坡各自在國家創新政策的方向與內涵,從這二個較小經濟規模、皆重點投入科技發展的島國的比較結果,本研究揭櫫各國政府是如何採取有效的措施以協助其國內高科技企業創造國際競爭優勢,特別是在二國的創新績效上的比較,台灣政府部門在創新與研究發展上,採取一主動的角色,以一由上而下的決策方法,集中政策在特定產業上;相對地,新加坡政府是透過具市場機制企業的設立來推廣創新。 其次,本論文在接續國家創新政策,進一步針對產業發展,選擇台灣半導體產業深入探究,IC晶圓代工業如何發展其產業供應鏈策略,更從公司層次探討無晶圓廠的IC設計公司如何選擇晶圓代工供應商。亦因台灣晶圓代工產業與IC設計產業目前市佔率為全球第一與第二,本研究選此作為關鍵個案之以作為連接國家創新政策的接續性產業研究。透過多準則決策分析方法,如決策實驗室分析法(DEMATEL)、網路分析程序法(ANP)、階層分析程序法(AHP)等,被應用在上述兩個產業-晶圓代工業與IC設計產業的分析上。本研究藉此也探究了這兩個台灣非常重要的產業,除了政府政策的導引與協助外,在各個管理層面上如何發展其策略。 從個別供應鏈策略的競爭優劣勢的特性與效應評估分析,本研究發現此策略動態變動的特質,在市場競爭的動態變動下,企業會被驅使調整其策略以維持或提升其競爭優勢。本研究依供應鏈統治能力區分十個主要的供應鏈策略,發現台灣IC晶圓代工業供應鏈績效最佳的策略乃是企業策略聯盟,而影響供應鏈策略發展的最重要準則是-對客戶成本競爭力的貢獻,其次是製程與技術藍圖的策略對準。 接續供應鏈策略的研究,本論文從產業最上游的無晶圓廠IC設計公司,分析其選擇晶圓代工供應商的決策準則,透過多準則決策分析方法中的階層分析程序法,考量在技術、生產、客戶服務支援、與製造設施位置等決策構面,面談IC設計公司的管理者與專家,調查其在決定IC晶圓代工供應商的16個準則,發現供應商的技術能力乃是其在考慮市場競爭的最重要決策選擇的準則。 本研究的研究發現,隨著資訊科技環境所塑造的知識組織間與地域間流動與擴散性增加,可幫助新興經濟體進一步學習並導入國家創新系統在政策與產業發展間的連結機制,及如何掌握台灣與新加坡國家創新政策的成功與彼此的異同,因此在新興經濟體的國家創新系統與產業發展的典範移轉乃是未來不可忽視的重要研究課題。
Prosperity of high-tech industries has been the main fostering factor of developing national or area economy since the 1970s. The global horizons are that quality innovation policies led by national governments can enhance industrial and economic development associated with appropriate business models of enterprises. First, this research portrayed and analyzed the dimensions and contexts of national innovation policy between Taiwan and Singapore. Based on the research results derived from a comparison of the two small technology-oriented island countries, this research discovered how their governments could assist high-tech companies in developing related strategies for creating competitive advantages nationally and globally. Particularly, in a comparative analysis of innovation performance between these two countries, Taiwanese public institutes take an active role in innovation/R&D and focus their policies on specific industries—a top-down approach; whereas the Singapore government promotes innovation by public enterprises establishments. Second, this dissertation conducted next-step research on how the integrated circuit (IC) foundry industry of Taiwan had developed its supply-chain strategy, and how IC design houses in Taiwan had selected appropriate IC foundry providers. Taiwan’s IC foundry industry and fabless IC design houses have ranked first and second, respectively, in terms of their worldwide market shares in recent years. This dissertation therefore adopted the whole industry chain as a case research of industry strategy covering key themes connecting to what is after national innovation policy. The multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) methods such as the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique, the analytic network process (ANP), and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) were applied to these two strategy selection researches. The research concerning these two mentioned topics is hoped to demonstrate how Taiwan’s specific and important industry chain has been developing its strategies in varying management aspects, apart from the government’s guidance and assistance. From evaluating the character and impact of the competitive advantage of individual supply-chain strategies, the study findings showed that strategy adjustments occur dynamically. Thus, companies are driven to make adjustments to strengthen their competitive advantages in a dynamic business environment. In addition, the most critical supply-chain strategy for Taiwan’s IC foundry industry through the survey is “business alliance.” Moreover, the “contribution to customer’s cost competition” and “process/technology roadmap alignment” are the two most important key influence factors of the offered strategies. Finally, the goal of the last step of research was to analyze the evaluation criteria used by IC designers when selecting IC foundry service providers. With an MCDM model considering the aspects of technology, production, customer service and support, and manufacturing location, we interviewed managers and experts of Taiwan’s IC design firms using the AHP survey with 16 attributes to determine the areas of top concern with respect to IC foundry evaluation criteria. In this study process, technology is found to be the most significant evaluation criterion in view of competitiveness in the customer market. The increase in organizational and geographical mobility of knowledge may help those emerging economies use national innovation system to link between policy and industry development. However, the geography of knowledge is not a flatter world, thus, it is important to figure out how those emerging economies can learn from the successful experience of Taiwan and Singapore. We suggest that some future research could focus on the paradigm shift in the field of NIS and industries development in emerging economics.
Appears in Collections:Thesis