The Cultural Implication of Hakka’s Rice Cake and Pastry in Beipu：The Case Study of Lung Yuan Pastry Store
|關鍵字:||地方文化產業;客家文化;消費文化;糕餅產業;ocal cultural industry;consumer culture;Hakka culture;rice cake and pastry industry|
In past times, rice cake and pastry were mainly used in worship with a symbolic meaning. However, as times change, under the impact of foreign food culture, the traditional rice cake and pastry industry gradually declined, so the development and survival of traditional rice cake and pastry culture is facing a serious threat. The development of Beipu rice cake and pastry industry also has a century-old history, which is exempt from the threat because of the rise of sightseeing. But in the face of changing social consumer culture, what could rice cake and pastry industry workers do to transform traditional industries into local cultural industries in order to continue to follow the rice cake and pastry Hakka culture? Trough the discussions of "relations between diet and culture", "symbol and consumer theory", and "cultural industry", new Beipu rice cake and pastry industry and its Hakka implications are explored in this research. The methodology includes literature analysis, in-depth interviews and participant observation. Based on the literature materials, text analysis was conducted for the time of rice cake becoming local specialty as well as the industry development. In-depth interview was conducted to understand Hakka culture, history and development of rice cake and pastry shop management, as well as consumers' impressions on Hakka cake and pastry and their recognition for Hakka rice cake and pastry culture. By participant observation, we could understand how entrepreneurs transform the tradition of Hakka rice cake and pastry into an ethnic symbol of Hakka food in contemporary Taiwanese society. The research found that Hakka people in the past times mostly lived in poverty but were able to make good use of food ingredients. "Rice" was a part of life and diet, while pastry were seen only in Mid-Autumn Festival and wedding banquets. Rice cakes used to meant success, fortune andgood wishes, but in today's consumer society, rice cake and pastry have become ethnic food to represent "Hakka" food culture. Along with the better living standard, the consumers have an increasing emphasis on rice cake and pastry flavors, packaging and food quality, implying that traditional rice cake has the disavatage of high-calorie. My case study shows that in order to survive, the owner of Lung Yuan Pastry Store has developed a sale strategy to promote their products as "local specialty" that represents "Hakka" food culture, so as to accord with the Government's policy that advocates to "bring culture to industry, and bring industry to culture". The existent studies of rice cake and pastry industry concentrates on the Taichung area, which focuses on the taste of Holo ethnic group. My research, instead, makes the initial contribution to the study of Hakka rice cake and pastry, and the successful case is represented by Lung Yuan, located in Beipu Township, Hsinchu County, Taiwan.