標題: TPS、TPM導入活動之實務探討-以台中精機公司為例
A practical discussion of implementing TPS and TPM activities
作者: 陳志旭
Chen, Chih-Hsu
Chen, Chiun-Hsun
Shu, Yi-Liang
關鍵字: 即時生產;零不良;零故障;零工安;Just-in-time;zero defect;zero failure;zero accident
公開日期: 2013
摘要: 本研究以豐田式生產管理系統(TPS)為目標,並以推動全員生產管理活動為主,從生產活動中採用及時生產為要求,以物與情報流為重要資訊,來配合降低安全庫存數量,並探討實際產線的零件品質不良影響,由導入TPS、TPM活動來低減或消滅加工品質不良,用來確保產線機台的順暢度,和製造品質優良的設備性能,才能符合客戶操作設備的需求。所以公司依循豐田式生產管理精髓,徹底排除生產管理的浪費,TPM活動實施生產效率化,由及時生產(JIT)與自働化兩大支柱消除各種生產浪費,提升產線品質與效率。 全面生產管理TPM活動的展開,包含(1)追求生產系統的最高效率化,(2)追求零故障,(3)跨部門的效率提升,(4)全體參與推動TPM,(5)由小集團活動來達成各小單元目標。本研究發現TPM活動可提升產線零件品質不良的改善與防止品質不良的再發,並可提升協力廠對TPM活動的認識,於輔導過程中學習零件不良的4M管理分類,對QM矩陣管理項目實施細項管制,以達成品質(零不良)的狀態,雖然協力廠沒有實施TPM活動,卻可以遵循TPS法則,以產線品質(零故障)目標邁進。 台中精機公司導入TPS、TPM的活動,其中為了降低物料庫存成本,導入物料及時生產,以因應產線組裝需求,如零件品質不良,將造成產線停滯,增加損失工時的成本。本研究以塑膠射出成型機產線的零件品質異常來探討,首先由產線技術人員來組裝機台,當組裝零件發生品質異常時,由技術人員開立零件不良報告書,並請產線主管確認簽名,再將零件不良報告書轉至品保部門登錄,登錄收件時間與處理後完成時間,作為零件品質不良的損失工時統計,每月進行零件不良所造成的損失工時與數量檢討,並以品質不良的協力廠進行品質輔導與改善作業,針對異常缺失的問題點,協力廠必須調查發生原因,進一步做要因分析,分析後採用因應對策,以達成零件品質(零不良)的目的,機台組裝測試(零故障),最後不會因零件不良來趕工,而達成產線現場(零工安)的目標。
The goal of the study is to practicing Toyota Production system (TPS) and to deploying production management activities to organizations by means of total participation of employees. Through production activities that adopt“just-in-time”as a measure,treat material and information flow as critical information to reduce safety quantity of stock,and discussing effect of defective parts that affect practical production lines, by implementing TPS,TPM activities to eliminate or reduce quality defect during process that ensures smoothness of assembly lines and manufacturing of quality equipment, which is able to meet requirements of customers on equipment. As matter of fact, companies that adopt essential factors of TPS can totally eliminate waste during operation production, TPM is supported by two pillars which are JIT (Just-In-Time) and autonomous defects control “autonomation” or “Jidoka” to eliminating wastes and increasing quality of production lines. The deployment of TPM activities which include (1)“Maximizing efficiency of production system”, (2)“Zero defects”,(3)“ Promoting efficiency among departments in a corporate”,(4)“ Full participation of employees to implementing TPM”,(5)“Achieving goal of each step through small team activities” , is essential throughout every department in the company. The study found implementing TPM activities in the organization not only can prevent quality defects from happening again but also can improve understanding to TPM activities of vendors. Although vendors are excluded in TPM activities, TPS principles are followed up by vendors through tutoring of the company to learn 4M in operation management against defect components, to carry out detailed control of quality matrix (QM) to achieve status of zero defects. Although the vendors does not implement TPM activities they still can go to the direction of zero failure through guidelines of TPS principles. The Victor-Taichung Machinery works implements TPS, and TPM activities, one of purposes is to reduce inventory costs. Hence, the company adopts that pre- assembled components to be distributed by warehouse control. The overstocked components often result in high inventory cost, by implementing a concept of “Just-In-Time” which can not only reduce space needed for assembly but also can reduce inventory cost and reduction of waste on transporting of components. The study focuses on saving costs of unnecessary working hour that occurred because of interruption of production lines, those interruption are contributed to defect components. The study focuses on quality defects of the assembly line of injection molding machine. Firstly, introduction to assembly processes, technicians assemble injection machines, when defect components are found, technicians fill out defect report that be signed by the foreman, the report then be forwarded to QC department for record, time of receipt to record and time of start to completion to be deemed as loss of statistic working hour. Monthly discussion over report of defect components and loss of working hour and quantity is conducted for corrective actions. The corrective actions are mainly imposed on those vendors who supply defect components to the assembly lines, for quality improvement. Those vendors are also obligated to receive suggestions from QC department of the company and help improve component quality. The causes of defect components need to be investigated and analyzed by the vendors for corrective actions, furthermore, cause and effect analysis has to be conducted by vendors and then submit corrective actions to QC department in order to achieve quality goal (zero defect), assembly and test (zero failure), elimination of danger caused by rush assembly of defect components to achieve a safety industrial environment (zero accident).
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