The mediation effect of game team attribution between interpersonal swift trust and team efficacy among temporary game teams in the “League of Legends”
|關鍵字:||臨時團隊;人際信任;團隊效能;團隊歸因;網路遊戲;temporary teams;interpersonal trust;team efficacy;team attribution;online game|
|摘要:|| 本研究目的是探討在網路遊戲《英雄聯盟》中，臨時組成的團隊需要快速信任隊友以期達成團隊目標，在遊戲競賽後，成員個人的人際信任如何透過團隊歸因，影響其團隊效能的認知判斷。臨時組成的團隊在發揮功能達成任務前，需要團隊成員快速建立起人際信任感（Katzenback & Smith, 1993），而達成任務後的結果則視為一種精熟經驗，是團隊效能的重要來源（Bandura, 1986），團隊在未來若要獲得良好表現，則團隊效能是不容忽視的重要動機。依任務結果（團隊表現）的時間序，本研究認為成員在人際上的快速信任，是預測團隊效能的因素。
如同個人的成就歸因，所謂「團隊歸因」是指成員歸結團隊這次成就表現的原因特性，分為內在歸因、團隊控制、外部歸因、穩定歸因等四個向度。Bandura（1986）認為對於精熟表現的詮釋會影響效能感的判斷。目前雖無研究探討人際信任是否能預測團隊歸因，但本研究認為人際信任感會影響成員在團隊歸因上的偏好，故本研究認為團隊歸因會中介人際信任與團隊效能之間的關係。利團隊歸因偏誤（team-serving attributional bias，TSAB）是指成員會把勝利歸結於內在、穩定、可控制的因素，而認為失敗是導因於外在、不穩定、不可控制的因素（Greenlees et al., 2007）。因此本研究認為中介模式會受到勝敗情境的調節。
The purpose of this research was to investigate in the online game, League of Legends (LoL), how the individual perceived interpersonal trust effect on team efficacy through “team attribution” among temporary teams. Players in a temporary team have to establish common trust quickly in order to coordinate effectively and smoothly for the achievement of team goals (Katzenback & Smith, 1993). Team achievement (usually winning the battle) is a mastery experience which is a critical source of team efficacy (Bandura, 1986). In turn, team efficacy would form motivational base for the future fruitful team outcomes. The author thus hypothesized that interpersonal trust (in swift manner for temporary teams) could directly predict team efficacy. Attribution theory (Weiner, 1986) tries to explain the ways in which individuals cognitively appraise outcomes of achievement situations. It has been argued that an analysis of team-referent attributions may enhance our understanding of an individuals’ motivation as part of a team and team process. Greelees et al. (2007) proposed a four-factor model of attribution dimensions that retained the locus of causality, stability, team control and external control dimensions. Team-referent attribution dimensions were expected to be effective mediators between interpersonal trust and team efficacy. In addition, researchers have also shown that there are differences in the attributions team members of successful and unsuccessful teams. Team-serving attributional bias (TSAB) refers to the situation when a team succeeds, individuals attribute that success to factors that are likely to enhance the group’s value. Thus, after success individuals are more likely to make internal, stable, and controllable attributions for the team’s performance (e.g., the ability of the team or inspired strategic decision-making). Conversely, the TSAB predicts that after failure, group members will be more likely to use attributions that protect a positive image of the group. Thus, it can be proposed that team members will be more likely to use external, unstable, and uncontrollable factors to explain the team’s performance (e.g., poor refereeing decisions, the cheating of opponents) after failure than after success. The recruited participants were 534 LoL players with 351 winners and 183 losers in their previous gaming. Their age was from 19 to 22. 27.3% of them were acquainted with their all teammates while 26.8% didn’t know any teammates. The research only focused on one mode, “Summoner's Rift.” The mode required 5 players to form a team and then two teams attack and occupy another’s stronghold (Nexus). In order to recruit the participants to fill out the online questionnaire immediately after a gameplay, the researcher posted a recruiting advertisement on LoL’s game forums and distributed advertisement letters to 11 classes in a private technology university. The measures include “Interpersonal Trust Measures,” “Causal Dimension Scale for Teams,” and “Team Efficacy Scale.” The data were collected from mid-March to late April, 2014. The researcher adopted structure equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the measurement model of each scale and the mediation model with team attribution as the mediator between the relationship of interpersonal trust and team efficacy. The major findings of the research were summarized as follows. 1. In the whole sample, interpersonal trust is a significant predictive to team efficacy (direct effect). While, at the same time two team attribution dimensions (locus of causality and team control) effectively mediate the direct effect from interpersonal trust to team efficacy. 2. When winners were selected to form winner-only sample, two dimensions of team attributions (locus of causality and stability) mediate the direct effect from interpersonal trust to team efficacy. 3. The mediation model shows unacceptable model fit in the loser-only sample. 4. Three measures: “Interpersonal Trust Measures,” “Causal Dimension Scale for Teams,” and “Team Efficacy Scale” demonstrate acceptable reliability and validity in the examination of measurement model using confirmatory factor analyses. According to above results, several suggestions were given for future researchers.