Berth Template Design Problem - Case Study in Jakarta International Container Terminal
|關鍵字:||船席模板問題;貨櫃碼頭;多碼頭場站;整數規劃;雅加達貨櫃港;Berth Template Problem;Container Terminal;Multi-Wharf Terminal;Integer Programming;Jakarta Port|
|摘要:||在印尼25個國際通航之港口中，雅加達之Tanjung Priok港伴隨著過去幾年貨運量顯著的增加，以成為當前最大和最繁忙港口之一，同時也躍昇為全球前50大之貨櫃港。然而，它的貨運量與其它國家之海港相比，特別是鄰近東南亞國家，如新加坡之singapore港與馬來西亞之Klang港、Tanjung Pelepas港與泰國之Laem Chabang港，其貨運量卻相對地較低。而事實上，由於港口發展迅速，勢必將面臨需求無法負荷的困境，因此對於Tanjung Priok港而言，是良好的機會也是一個重大的挑戰。而隨著貨運量的增加，對於作為海港裝卸處理重要一環之貨櫃碼頭，如何有效地處理貨物，並且如何完善規劃貨運量，達到最佳化目標，即為船席模板設計問題(Berth Template Problem,BTP)。
Indonesia has 25 international seaports, Tanjung Priok (Port of Jakarta) is the biggest and the busiest one. It has significant increase of traffic volume for last few years. Moreover, it is one of the top 50 world container ports based on traffic volume. However, its traffic volume is lower than seaport’s traffic volume in many other countries, especially for those in Southeast Asia, such as Port of Singapore (Singapore), Port Klang and Tanjung Pelepas (Malaysia), and Laem Chabang (Thailand). As a matter of fact, Tanjung Priok has the highest increasing rate. It means that Tanjung Priok has a big opportunity and challenge when facing the issue demand development. The container terminal, as one of seaport’s main parts to handle the loading/unloading of container activities, should be prepared to face the traffic volume increasing. One of the decision plans to support the problem solving of that issue is work on one of the tactical decision plans, the Berth Template Problem (BTP). The Berth Template Problem determines the berthing windows of the calling ships within a planning horizon (e.g., a week). As a mid-term tactical decision problem, BTP provides the decision support for a terminal operator to negotiate the contracts with the shipping lines. This study develops an integer programming (IP) model aiming to minimize the total deviation, given the ship-dependent target times preferred by the shipping lines. In particular, a cylinder constraint is imposed to take into account the periodic planning nature of the BTP. In order to validate the applicability and benefit of the model, this study performs a numerical experiment based on the operational data of Jakarta International Container Terminal (JICT) – Terminal I, which has multiple perpendicular wharfs. This unique feature of multi-wharf sides has led to the IP formulation that has never seen in the literature. Based on the experiments, the developed model is found to be promising for raising the resource utilization and operational efficiency of container terminals. First, it can find the berth template which has the optimum (minimum) penalty cost (least starting service time deviation), with no overlapping in time dimension and space dimension as well as no violation of the constraint related to the planning horizon. On the other hand, it also can find the optimum way of accommodating the new ships, which can be inserted to the existing template, with minimum penalty cost. This pursued objective could make great contribution to the terminal operator, especially for JICT. It can also serve as the decision tool to make a plan for dealing with increased demand.