Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Instruction and Listening Only on Listening Comprehension and Vocabulary Acquisition
|關鍵字:||後設認知策略;獨立聽力;聽力理解;字彙習得;metacognitive strategy;independent listening;listening comprehension;vocabulary acquisition|
|摘要:||聽力理解的能力為語言學習中一個基本且重要的能力。近年來，關於聽力訓練的外顯性策略教學以及內隱性學習的議題已被許多語言教學研究者或語言教師所重視。然而，鮮少探討此兩種語言教學方式在聽力理解能力上的不同，尤其是在字彙習得上的影響更是少。本研究主要目的為探討顯著性策略教學(意即後設認知聽力教學)與內隱性學習(意即獨立聽力自學)對聽力理解與字彙習得之影響。本研究受測對象為38位來自兩所北台灣大學的成人學習者，並將他們分為三組: 第一組為實驗組共14人，接受後設認知英文聽力教學；第二組為實驗組共12人，接受獨立聽力自學活動；第三組為控制組共12人，不接受任何聽力教學與活動。聽力訓練實驗過程中，CNN英文新聞被選為聽力教材，，並研究他們從中習得聽力理解能力與英文字彙的情形。實驗前後以托福聽力測驗與Vocabulary Knowledge Scale作為受試者聽力理解能力與字彙程度的了解與成效的比較。最後，從兩組實驗組中各挑選兩位受試者參與訪談，了解學生的學習感受。
主要的研究結果如下: (一) 外語學習者可藉由後設認知策略教學與獨立聽力自學增進英文聽力理解能力。內隱性獨立聽力自學的學習成效尤其達到顯著效果，顯示出聽力的學習需要更多的接觸時間，使其沉浸於英文聽力的環境中。(二) 外語學習者可藉由後設認知策略教學與獨立聽力自學習得英文字彙，增進字彙量。外顯性口語解說對於字彙習得的成效被認為是主要的因素之一。(三) 後設認知策略教學與獨立聽力自學同樣都可以使外語學習者提升對後設認知的察覺(Metacognitive Awareness)。在對後設認知的察覺的五項因子中，後設認知策略教學對於提升學習者的「計畫與檢視」因子達到顯著，而純聽力自學則對於提升學習者的「直接注意力」因子達到顯著效果。(四)最後，整體而言，學習者對於後設認知策略教學以及獨立聽力自學的學習活動都感到滿意，其中有些學習者希望有更多的聽力接觸時間。
本研究對於教學上的啟發包括: 首先，建議外語教學者應教學重點置於學習者的聽力學習過程，不能只是聽力學習結果而已。此外，建議外語教學提供更多的真實性教學資源使學習者有更多機會習得語料庫中的高頻率與低頻率字彙。其三，從本研究可以推論出，影響聽力理解能力與字彙習得的其中一個重要關鍵是「反覆接觸」(repeated exposure)語料。因此，外語教學者可以在設計重視過程式教學的同時，設計並指派學生更多的課外聽力自學活動，讓學生在課程外也可以持續接受到英文聽力的語料。最後，外語教師在選擇作為外顯性與內隱性聽力教學的教材資源時，語料的「真實性」(authenticity) 應須考慮進去。高度真實性的教材資源可以訓練學生熟習真實的對話速度並了解習得字彙的使用。 |
Listening comprehension plays a crucial role in language learning. In recent years, the issues about explicit listening strategies training and implicit learning have been emphasized by second language acquisition researchers or language instructors. However, little research has compared the effects of different listening instructions on listening comprehension and particularly on second language learners' vocabulary acquisition. The present study investigated the effects of an explicit instruction (metacognitive listening instruction; META) and an implicit instruction (independent listening; IL) on listening comprehension development and vocabulary acquisition. The study presented an experimental model with 38 Taiwanese adult learners from two universities in Northern Taiwan. They were divided into three groups: (1) a metacognitive experimental group (N = 14) who received metacognitive listening instructions through prediction, monitoring, evaluating, and problem-solving; (2) an implicit listening experimental group (N = 12) who receive independent listening task and (3) a control group (N = 12), without any treatment. English news from CNN magazines and websites were chosen as listening materials. Their effects on listening comprehension and vocabulary gain were measured with TOFEL listening examines and Vocabulary Knowledge Scale. Then, a semi-structured interview was conducted and a metacognitive listening awareness questionnaire was administered. The major findings are as follows: First of all, EFL young adult learners in IL reached a significant difference in listening comprehension test, while META didn’t yield the significant difference. However, META and IL didn’t show the significance either. Secondly, EFL young adult learners in both META and IL reach a significant difference in VKS when compared to CG. Thirdly, both META and IL reached a significant difference in MALQ. Besides, no significance was found between META and IL. Only Plan-Evaluation, Directed Attention, and Person Knowledge yielded the significant difference among the three groups. Finally, overall speaking, learners were satisfied with the learning experience through META or LO, while some students in META require more time to listening practice. The major conclusions are discussed as follows: At first, the significant difference yielded in IL in listening comprehension indicated learners seemed to require more exposure time to be involved in English listening. Secondly, learners were able to expand L2 vocabulary size by strategic listening instruction and simply by independent listening. Explicit word elaboration was found to be the most influential factor affecting vocabulary acquisition. Thirdly, the result of MALQ indicated students’ metacognitive awareness was probably fostered through both META or LO. The study provided pedagogical implication for future instructions. First, for EFL instructors, they are suggested to emphasize on listening process instead of just listening product. Second, language instructors are recommended to provide students more resource for vocabulary acquisition of high frequency words as well as low frequency words. Third, the key consideration of listening improvement and vocabulary acquisition is “repeated exposure”. Hence, language instructors are recommended to design a process-based program and assign listening exercise which appeal to more repetition outside the classroom. Lastly, the authenticity of both explicit and implicit instructions should be taken into consideration, for it increases the chances for students to expose to the authentic speed of the listening materials.