Investigating EFL Students' Writing Process with the Help of Writing Consultations
|關鍵字:||寫作諮詢,寫作中心,寫作修改;writing consultation,writing center, writing revision|
本研究以質性研究之方法,檢視四位學生在寫作諮詢中和諮詢教師(consultants)的互動模式,在諮詢活動結束之後的文章修改,以及檢視學生在諮詢之後的自我認知調節策略(self-regulatory strategies)的改變及運用。研究資料收集自參與者和諮詢教師於寫作諮詢過程中的錄音,寫作諮詢前、中、後的五次訪談,以及參與者參加寫作諮詢前、後的文稿。研究者參考及結合了 Thonus (2004) and Goldstein and Conrad (1990)所整理提出之資料整理方式(coding scheme)，以將參與者的互動種類予以編碼及分類。
研究結果顯示,寫作諮詢的過程中,專家 (the experts),亦為諮詢教師為主要主導整個寫作諮詢過程,但學生並不完全為被動學習者。若參與者在接受寫作諮詢前的準備階段投入較多心力,在寫作諮詢過程中亦會表現得較為積極。而參與者在文章修改上不僅呈現出諮詢教師的建議占有極大的影響,參與者在四次的寫作諮詢過後亦呈現出較之前重視大範圍的修改(macro-revision)。最後,本研究也呈現了寫作諮詢對於學生自我認知調節策略的使用及改變。依據研究結果，研究者也指出本研究之缺失，及提出針對英語教學上的應用與未來相關研究之建議。|
Writing centers, places for students to discuss their writing with writing consultants, refine their writing products, and improve their writing skills, have been popular in recent years. In the setting of universities, the functions of most writing centers are providing advice for students’ writing, consultants’ sharing of their experience or knowledge of English writing, and diagnosing individual students’ writing problems (Harris, 1995). With the proliferation of L2 writers visiting writing centers to seek for help, the influence of writing centers on students’ writing has brought about many studies. However, few studies have examined the relationship between students’ interaction and engagement during writing consultations and their decisions on subsequent revisions. Moreover, with little knowledge about the interaction and the social dimensions involved during consultation sessions, it is difficult to fully capture students’ perception after they receive the feedback from their consultants. Targeting four EFL students’ writing process with the aid of writing consultations, this study attempted to examine how students interacted with the consultants during consultation sessions, how students’ engagement influenced the interaction in writing consultation sessions and their subsequent writing revisions, and how writing consultation might influence learners’ use of self-regulation strategies (Graham & Harris, 2000). This study adopted qualitative methodology. The data were collected from the recordings of consultant-participant interaction during four consultation sessions, participants’ writing drafts for consultation sessions and the revised ones, and five interviews with each participant. The data were analyzed by adapting three coding schemes. The coding schemes from Thonus (2004) and from Goldstein and Conrad (1990) were adapted to analyze the transcripts of student-consultant interaction features during the consultation sessions. The second coding scheme was adapted from Williams (2004) to examine students’ revision after the consultation sessions. The third coding schemes was adopted from Graham & Harris (2000) in order to investigate students’ self-regulatory strategy use. The results showed that while the consultants generally played a more dominant role during the consultation sessions, students with more preparation before visiting the writing center exhibited more active engagement during the consultation sessions. As for the draft revision after the consultation sessions, students’ revision generally was highly influenced by the consultants’ advice, and the students gradually shifted from focusing on micro-revisions to macro-revisions. Moreover, the students with more active engagement during the consultation sessions showed more self-regulatory strategy use. With the abovementioned results, several pedagogical implications were provided.