Exploring the Beliefs and Practices of Pre-service Teachers in the Participation of CALL Material Design Contest: An Activity Theory Perspective
|關鍵字:||電腦輔助語言教學教材設計;活動理論;資訊融入;教師信念;比賽;CALL material design;activity theory;technology integration;teacher’s belief;contest|
以活動理論(Engeström, 1987, 1999) 做理論框架，本質性研究藉由訪談及文件記錄下三位職前教師設計電腦輔助語言教學教材的過程。本研究有三個研究問題，包含(1)教師在電腦輔助語言教學及語言教學及學習的信念，如何反映在參與比賽中設計的電腦輔助教學教材上，(2)有哪些潛在的因素影響教師的比賽參與，和(3)參與比賽的經驗如何影響到教師的信念及教師在教材設計、科技融入及比賽參與上造成的影響。訪談內容將依據活動理論六大因素進行分析，包含「個體」、「欲達成之目標」、「達成目標的媒介」、「個體存在之社群」、「社群內之規則」、及「個體和他人之間的權力關係」。
Integrating technology into teaching has been a trend among K-12 teachers. With reference to such a trend, contests on designing technology-integrated materials encourage teachers’ efforts in incorporating technology into pedagogical practice. In this regard, the present study aims to explore the process of CALL material design in contests with the focus on teachers’ beliefs and practices. Although teachers’ beliefs in technology integration have been addressed in abundant literature, the relations between beliefs and CALL materials have not yet fully addressed. Drawing on activity theory (Engestrom, 1987, 1999), the qualitative study targets three pre-service teachers and records their process of CALL material design by means of semi-structured interviews and documents. The study addresses three research questions, including (1) how teachers’ beliefs in CALL and language teaching and learning are reflected in their CALL material design in a contest, (2) what underlying factors mediated the process of their participation for the contest, (3) how participating in the contest influences teachers’ beliefs and teachers in terms of material design, technology integration and contest participation. Interview data was coded into six components in Engeström’s (1987, 1999) model of activity theory, including subject, object, mediated artifacts, community, rules, and division of labor. The findings of the study reveal that teachers’ beliefs were influential in their practice. Regarding their beliefs in language teaching and learning, three common themes were found to be crucial, including their preference in creating attractive materials, consideration of involving learners, and their professional knowledge. Additionally, insufficient training, contest regulations and deadline of submission were found to contribute to the inconsistency between teachers’ beliefs and practices. With reference to the components interplaying within teachers’ activity systems, firstly, agency consisted of teachers’ beliefs, training as well as experience in both teaching and material design. Second, the mediated artifacts were adopted by the two participants in varying their materials. Interestingly, only one participant adopted rather few mediated artifacts due to her limited time and the tendency to utilize only the available resource. Third, primarily established within the contest, the rules were found to impact teachers’ use of technology and cause restrictions to their practice. Conversely, the community such as partner or technical support was suggested to be facilitative to teachers. Finally, concerning division of labor, teachers were at disadvantage to the host institute in the context of a contest. Last but not least, despite no drastic change in teacher’s beliefs was spotted, the experience of participating in such contest brought both positive and negative impacts to teachers in terms of material design and technology integration. Several pedagogical implications were proposed, including the encouragement of contest participation and collaboration with partners, and involving teachers’ perspective in constructing contest regulations.
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