標題: 高樓連結送水管風險管理
Analysis of Risk Management of Standpipe and Hose System in High-Rise Building
作者: 黃美芳
Hung, Mei-Fang
陳俊勳
Chen, Chiun-Hsun
工學院產業安全與防災學程
關鍵字: 失效模式影響與關鍵性分析;風險分析;連結送水管;水力計算;Surge;中繼幫浦;消防車;壓力調整閥;Failure Modes , Effects and Criticality Analysis;risk analysis;standpipe and hose system;hydraulic calculation;Surge;relaying pump;fire vehicle;pressure reducing valve
公開日期: 2013
摘要: 失效模式影響與關鍵性分析(Failure Modes , Effects and Criticality Analysis,FMECA)屬於預防式的風險分析方法,透過檢討分析系統各元件應有的功能與要求,逐步偵測系統中的流程、設備、訊息或人為所造成的潛在失效模式及可能的影響結果。 本研究運用FMECA風險分析方法識別並解析高樓連結送水管系統各種失效模式,篩選出系統可能失效模式較為關鍵指標項目,續而選用水力計算軟體Surge進行連結送水管系統處於紊流狀態之模擬驗證,量化失效模式發生時之可能結果,以提出相關預防措施。 上述風險分析結果顯示,連結送水管系統較為關鍵的失效模式包括消防人員操作中繼幫浦之啟動順序錯誤、連接消防車至送水口之送水管(水帶)使用中破裂、送水口附近的止水閥關閉、壓力調整閥控制器阻塞(管內雜質或本身鏽蝕)、擾流影響壓力調整閥調壓、中繼幫浦吸入空氣及使用中部分瞄子開啟與關閉等。 經選取適當失效模式作為情境假設,並運用水力計算軟體Surge驗證結果得出,低層壓力調整閥若於系統使用中突然閥門無法開啟,將於低層幫浦二次側產生落差約26kgf/cm2的壓力變化,此壓力振盪對於系統管路可能造成相當大的破壞。此外,當低層幫浦突然故障時,將於低層幫浦吐出側產生落差約2~12 kgf/cm2不等的壓力振盪,相較於模擬情境六(高層幫浦突然故障),低層幫浦故障較高層幫浦故障所產生之破壞性較大。 最後提出連結送水管系統設計時之風險控管建議、操作使用建議及維護管理重點、法令修改建議等事項,以作為設計者、審查者、地方消防機關參考,期望能大符提昇建築物連結送水管之可靠度,增加消防搶救使用率,最終確實發揮系統效能。
FMECA, Failure Modes , Effects and Criticality Analysis, is a method of risk analysis with a type of anticipating reaction. Through examining and analyzing function and requirement of every system component, FMECA detects and examines potential failure modes and possible influence results progressively, which caused by the system, procedure, apparatus, message or human behavior. This study adopted FMECA method to analyze various failure modes of standpipe and hose system and selected key factors of failure modes in the system. Furthermore, this study utilized Surge, hydraulic calculation software, to simulate and evaluate standpipe and hose system with turbulent state, and quantify the possible result of failure modes in order to conduct some appropriate precaution measures. The above-mentioned risk analysis shows that failure modes of higher risk in the standpipe and hose system as follows: 1.Startup sequence error of fire fighter's operation related relaying pump, 2.Hosepipe rupture between fire vehicle and water inlet of fire department connection, 3.Stop valve closed in water inlet of fire department connection, 4.Controller block in pressure reducing valve due to impurities or corrosion of the pipe itself, 5.Disturbing flow influences pressure control in pressure reducing valve, 6.Relaying pump suck air, 7.Impurity in the standpipe, 8.Nozzles turn on and off by fire fighters. According to assessment analysis results, while pressure reducing valve was unable to open in the lower floors, it produced the pressure drop around 26 kgf/cm2 at the secondary side of pumps in lower floors, the pressure concussion may cause great destruction to the pipeline. While pumps failed in the lower floors, pump outlet sides produced pressure concussion about 2~12 kgf/cm2. Compared with scenario 6 (pump failures in higher floors), the pumps in the lower floors produced more destructive than pumps the higher floors. Finally, this study proposed better strategies of Standpipe and Hose System design, operation, and maintenance management for designer, examiner, local fire department authority, and building administrator. Also, it is hopeful to promote reliability of standpipe and hose system in building, increase utilization rate of fire rescue.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079966505
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/72601
Appears in Collections:Thesis