The Influence of Customer Incivility and Emotional Labor on Employees’ Job Satisfaction –Perceived Organizational Support as a Moderator
|關鍵字:||情緒勞務;顧客無禮行為;情緒耗竭;工作滿意;知覺組織支持;emotional labor;customer incivility;emotional exhaustion;job satisfaction;perceived organizational support|
Service industry has become the most predominant industry in nowadays society. The characteristic of service industry is to deliver intangible service to customers, so the employees usually have to conduct emotional labor, in order to express appropriate emotion required by organizations. The seldom discussed customer incivility is considered in the research, to study what effects may be caused when employees conduct emotional labor under the circumstance of confronting with customer incivility. The research questionnaire is delivered to employees of bank and insurance companies, and totally we have collected 346 samples for further analysis. Hierarchical regression analysis is implemented in the research. According to the analysis, it is found that because deep acting is an authentic approach to feel the emotion required expressing, it can increase job satisfaction. Simultaneously we also observe the complete mediation effect of emotional exhaustion, meaning that both surface acting and customer incivility must have been through emotional exhaustion to decrease job satisfaction. The moderating hypothesis is partially supported in our study. Perceived organizational support is demonstrated to strengthen the positive effect of deep acting and mitigate the negative effect of emotional exhaustion both on job satisfaction. However it is beyond our expectation to find that perceived organizational support can actually strengthen the originally insignificant negative effect of surface acting on job satisfaction, for the reason that employees’ expectations result from higher perceived organizational support is unmet due to the negative influence brought by surface acting. Finally, based on our analysis, some managerial implications are provided. It is suggested that managerial team should train employees with appropriate emotional labor approach, and concern seriously about the potential emotional stress from which may suffered by employees, so that job satisfaction would be increased.