A Study of Emergency Water Treatment Technologies and Selection Methodology for Disaster Relief
|關鍵字:||急難淨水;環境衛生;人道救援;氣候變遷;water treatment;natural disaster;emergency relief|
The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) indicates a global increase in the frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to climate change in recent decades. Access to safe drinking water is one of the priorities following a disaster, this along with shelter, medication and food are crucial to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases. However, the treatment of drinking water can also be the most challenging aspect of a response, with no standard solution. The availability, quality and condition of water source and surrounding infrastructure will differ immensely from event to event, making it impracticable to provide a one-for-all solution. This study reviews the available household and community-based water treatment technologies including portable, mobile and modular solutions suitable for use in emergency relief. Eight mutually independent criteria that include ease of deployment, ease of operation, throughput, capital cost, performance, maintenance complexity, supply of consumables and energy requirements, are identified to evaluate each emergency water treatment solution. The decision tree and scoring decision matrix combined these criteria and weighting factors is established and discussed. The proposed technical solutions are reviewed combined with social factors including local material and labor resources, social culture, financial, political aspects, etc. Eventually, needs of affected populations and regional issues are clarified for final decision-making of emergency water treatment solutions. The logical framework and systematic methodology for selection of emergency water treatment solutions are developed as a tool for decision-making and justify the actions of relief organizations in the field.