標題: 急難淨水設備之特性分析與篩選模式探討
A Study of Emergency Water Treatment Technologies and Selection Methodology for Disaster Relief
作者: 婁中恒
Lou, Chung-Heng
黃志彬
Huang, Chih-Pin
工學院永續環境科技學程
關鍵字: 急難淨水;環境衛生;人道救援;氣候變遷;water treatment;natural disaster;emergency relief
公開日期: 2012
摘要: 近年來全球受到氣候變遷影響,極端氣候造成之災害強度與頻率急遽增加,災害規模也不斷擴大。在急難初期,水與環境衛生是維繫生存的關鍵因素;往往由於相關資源的破壞與匱乏,受災群眾常因缺乏安全衛生的飲用水,而飽受疾病與死亡的威脅。急難淨水也是在人道救援行動中,最具有挑戰性的層面;水源的水質、種類、可用性、持續性常因不同的事件與環境,有著極大的差異,沒有標準的解決方案。因應氣候變遷與日趨頻繁的災害,如何在急難時期,結合有限資源進行淨水處理,提供即時、足夠與安全之飲用水,維持基本生存與生活所需,實為救援重要課題。 本研究探討各種急難淨水技術之應用優勢與限制,並蒐集具賑災實務經驗之急難淨水用品與設備進行比較分析,進而歸納建立技術評核指標與評分系統,運用系統化之決策分析模式,從技術層面評選可行方案;另一方面,緊密結合專業技術資源、政府機構與人道救援組織,進行社會性層面之評估。期盼在急難嚴峻之挑戰下,協助國際人道救援組織客觀迅速地評估與決策,執行最適之急難淨水方案,作為急難救援決策參考之重要依據。
The Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT) indicates a global increase in the frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to climate change in recent decades. Access to safe drinking water is one of the priorities following a disaster, this along with shelter, medication and food are crucial to prevent the spread of waterborne diseases. However, the treatment of drinking water can also be the most challenging aspect of a response, with no standard solution. The availability, quality and condition of water source and surrounding infrastructure will differ immensely from event to event, making it impracticable to provide a one-for-all solution. This study reviews the available household and community-based water treatment technologies including portable, mobile and modular solutions suitable for use in emergency relief. Eight mutually independent criteria that include ease of deployment, ease of operation, throughput, capital cost, performance, maintenance complexity, supply of consumables and energy requirements, are identified to evaluate each emergency water treatment solution. The decision tree and scoring decision matrix combined these criteria and weighting factors is established and discussed. The proposed technical solutions are reviewed combined with social factors including local material and labor resources, social culture, financial, political aspects, etc. Eventually, needs of affected populations and regional issues are clarified for final decision-making of emergency water treatment solutions. The logical framework and systematic methodology for selection of emergency water treatment solutions are developed as a tool for decision-making and justify the actions of relief organizations in the field.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT079876514
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/72125
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