From Red to Blue Ocean - Competitive Strategies for Photovoltaic Industry Development in Taiwan and China
|關鍵字:||太陽能產業;價值創新;藍海策略;Solar Industry;Value Innovation;Blue Ocean Strategy|
|摘要:||近年來全球的暖化與能源問題日趨嚴重，因此各國政府開始檢視過去使用石化能源對環境所造成的衝擊，並關注與探討如何節省能源及減少二氧化碳的排放量，因此積極開發可再生能源(Renewable energy)或綠色能源(Green energy)以取代傳統石化能源。在眾多的再生能源中，由於太陽光能是取之不盡，用之不竭的天然能源，除了沒有能源耗盡的疑慮之外，也可以避免能源被壟斷的問題，因此各國便積極地發展太陽能應用科技以及相關產業供應鏈。太陽能產業在德國的電力收購制度(Feed in Tariff)的推動下，帶動整個產業的發展越臻成熟。在2004~2008年間，相關產業鏈蓬勃發展，於是太陽能產業曾在兩岸紅極一時。然而自2011年起，由於過去的主要市場歐洲地區，陷入嚴重的歐債危機，政府減少政策補貼，全球太陽能產業供過於求，產品報價大幅走跌逾50%，因此造成產業景氣急轉直下，產業上中下游業者皆面臨前所未有的嚴峻挑戰。本研究從太陽能產業市場需求面、產業價值鏈、政府補貼政策與太陽能電池技術發展等構面分別探討太陽能產業該如何突破困境，透過創造新需求與價值創新策略，開創新的經營模式，從紅海走向藍海。|
In recent years, the problems of global warming and energy crisis are becoming increasingly severe. Therefore, governments have begun to review the impact of using the fossil energy on the global environment and pay much more attention to energy saving and carbon dioxide emissions reduction. The renewable energy sources or the green energies are thus becoming the most potential alternatives to replace the traditional fossil energy sources. Among so many renewable energy choices, solar energy is regarded as one of the unlimited and continually replenishable energy source. Consequently, institutes and industries are actively developing the photovoltaic technologies and related supply chains. The Feed-in-Tariff policy had accelerated the photovoltaic industrial development as the Germany government was the first to introduce it into the industries. Thus, from year 2004 to 2008, the flourish of the photovoltaic industry attracted lots of firms from Taiwan and China invested into the related supply chains. However, the global solar industry has encountered the oversupply of products offering an unprecedented decline in module prices more than 50% since 2011. As the major markets in Europe have faced a serious debt crisis and thus the European governments have reduced the subsidies and thus worsened the industrial economic. All of sectors in the industry are facing unprecedented challenges. In this study, we seek to pursue Blue Ocean Strategies for those who concern the development of photovoltaic industries in Taiwan and China via reviewing and analyzing the results of some key aspects including the market supply and demand, industrial value chain, technologies development and government subsidies of the industry to facilitate organizations creating new demands in the "Blue Ocean" market space, rather than to compete with other rivals in the existing Red Ocean markets.