Title: 長方形概括底高為模組對平面圖形面積 補救教學成效之研究
The Effect of the Rectangular Module on the Remedial Teaching of Figure Area
Authors: 陳昭吉
Chen, Chao-Chi
Chen, Ming-Jang
Keywords: 認知負荷;多媒體學習;模組;引導式教學;cognitive load;multimedia learning;module;guided teaching
Issue Date: 2013
Abstract: John Swelle及其團隊的研究證實,知識是以基模的形式儲存於長期記憶體,而長期記憶基模的多寡則決定學習成效;當學生在基模不足的情形下,如何在學習歷程中幫助他們降低認知負荷並增加基模則成為重要的關鍵。本研究旨在探討長方形概括底高為模組對平面圖形面積補救教學之成效,研究對象為台中市某中學七年級8個常態班級的253位學生,實施前測後將低成就學生採抽離方式進行平面圖形面積補救教學,實驗組採用「長方形概括底高為模組」的策略,而對照組則採用「切割和拼合」的策略,兩組皆以引導式教學且教材皆以步驟化方式呈現,以便探討學生的學習成效與認知負荷的影響。本研究採準實驗研究法,並對實驗組部份學生進行簡要的解題歷程訪談,以了解實驗組經教學後平面圖形概念是否真有改變。在學習成效後測及延後測的部份,除分析總分外,再針對三角形、平行四邊形、梯形概念作分析。研究結果顯示後測部份實驗組和對照組總分及各平面圖形概念皆達到顯著差異,而延後測部份僅梯形概念未達顯著差異,其餘概念皆達顯著差異;認知負荷部份則採用認知負荷量表的花費心力來作分析,結果顯示兩組學生的認知負荷沒有顯著差異;最後,就學習效率和學習投入分數而言,實驗組屬於高投入高效率,對照組為低投入低效率。研究者建議教師運用模組化策略,以長方形概括底高為模組,將長方形的邊和平面圖形的任一邊疊合,再畫出長方形的另一邊,即為平面圖形的高,由這兩個步驟所形成的模組,能有效幫助學生學習平面圖形面積計算。
Research done by John Sweller and his colleagues proved that knowledge was stored in long-term memory in the form of schema and that the numbers of long-term memory schema determined learning effectiveness. When students were lacking in schema, how to help them reduce cognitive load and increase their schema played a key role in the learning process. This study is intended to investigate the effect of rectangular module on the remedial teaching. The participants were 253 seven-graders recruited from 8 average classes in a high school in Taichung City in Taiwan. After the pre-test, low achievers received pull-out remedial teaching of rectangular figure area. While the experimental group were instructed under the rectangular module, the control group were instructed under the cut-and-assemble module. Both groups were under guided instruction with the learning materials presented step by step in an attempt to explore students’ learning effectiveness and the effect of cognitive load on it. Under the quasi-experimental design, the researcher conducted interviews with some of the participants from the experimental group in order to understand whether their concept of figure area were truly changed. As for the learning effectiveness in post-test and delayed post-test, in addition to analysis of participants’ total scores, their scores regarding concepts of triangle, parallelogram, and trapezoid were also analyzed. The results of the study showed that, in the post-test, both the participants’ total scores and their scores of the concepts regarding three figures were of significant difference. However, in the delayed post-test, all scores were of significant difference except their scores of the trapezoid concept. Furthermore, participants’ cognitive load was analyzed through their mental efforts involved in class measured by the cognitive load measurement. The results showed that there was no significant difference between participants’ cognitive loads in both groups. Finally, in terms of instructional efficiency and instructional involvement score, participants in the experimental group were described as learners of high involvement and high instructional efficiency learning style, while those from the control group were classified as learners of low involvement and low instructional efficiency learning style. The researcher thus suggested that teachers could help students learn figure area more effectively if they could adopt the rectangular module strategy, made up of the two procedures, first overlapping one side of a rectangle with either side of a parallelogram and then drawing the other side of the rectangle, which was equaled to the height of the figure.
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