標題: 台灣與南韓晶圓代工競爭力分析: 以個案公司為例
The competitive analysis of foundry business between Taiwan and South Korea: cases study
作者: 丁友貞
Ting, Yu-Chen
Chung, Huimin
Jen, William
關鍵字: 半導體產業;晶圓代工;摩爾定律;競爭策略;Semiconductor Industry;Competitive Strategy;Foundry;IDM;;Moore's Law;IC
公開日期: 2012
摘要: 一向被台灣廠商視為勁敵的南韓,近來年電子相關產業發展得愈來愈好,尤其是三星集團旗下的三星電子,一手包辦手機、電視、記憶體及面板等產品的國際龍頭地位,高度垂直整合的商業模式,加上從終端產品的發展角度來佈局整個企業攻城掠地的策略,讓世界各國都不敢輕忽南韓三星的一舉一動。三星文化中一向存在著高度的危機意識,總是尋找著企業下一波成長的契機,為此於2010 年宣布進軍晶圓代工服務產業,進軍理由著重於晶圓代工的的高毛利率及三星自有產品的需求,過去幫蘋果公司代工行動處理器的經驗,讓三星晶圓代工的成績由第九名躍升至全球的第三名,而且逼進第二名的格羅方德,當然一向非做到第一不可的三星,對晶圓代工的野心絕非如此,他要競爭的對象非常清楚,那就是晶圓代工產業的龍頭老大,擁有近半市佔率、毛利率高達五成的台積電,台積電一向是國內企業的模範生,面對台灣眾多公司敗陣於三星的情況下,眾人莫不盼望台積電能打贏這場仗,然而面對迥異於過去單純晶圓代工業者的新競爭,台積電該拿出什麼因應策略?三星又會有什麼新的策略?這些將是本研究試圖分析的對象,藉由兩個個案公司過去及現在的策略研究,來推論未來可能的策略並提出建議,以為相關業界之參考。 研究發現台積電目前仍較具競爭優勢,因為其在晶圓代工產業中的經濟規模及較強的客戶信任基礎,然而,先進技術製程一向是台積電獲利的利基來源,若要延續摩爾定律的時限,必需投入愈來愈高額的資本資出,雖說台積電的財務狀況良好,但面對此一長期戰爭,即早準備糧草或許是台積電最需要努力的重點之一;反觀三星,因蘋果公司離開所造成的產能空缺,短期之內可能由自家產品彌補,長期發展還是需要外部客戶,在尋找客戶的過程中,能否以其終端產品為名,行帶動晶圓代工訂單之實?抑或客戶擔憂自己成為下一個索尼、蘋果,拒絕下單至三星?這些都考驗著未來三星在晶圓代工業務的發展方向。 據台積電董事長張忠謀先生預估,2013年晶圓代工將有10% 以上的成長率,由於行動裝置產品的熱賣,造成 PC 市場的萎縮,英特爾也開始宣布進軍晶圓代工服務,並搶走台積電大客戶阿爾特拉(Altera),這些擁有主力產品的IDM大廠開始加入競爭行列, 再加上格羅方德(Globalfoundries)、聯電等二線業者在後追趕,台積電的壓力可謂不小,不過,誠如張董事長所言,現在的台積電只能抱著必勝的決心,一步一步謹慎地面對新挑戰,再次迎接下一個新的里程碑。
South Korea is always treated as the strong competitor by Taiwan electronic industries, especially for Samsung Group, till today, Samsung electronics has gotten the international leading position in different products, including smart phones, TV, memory and panel etc., no one in the world would disregard his any movement. Samsung’s great competitive ability mainly is from the vertical and integrated business model, plus overall perspectives strategy from end products to components. To have highly sense of crisis is Samsung’s traditional culture, he is always seeking new business for next wave development opportunities, in Y2010, he announced to start the foundry business which has high profit margin and high growth rate in the future. From the experience to work for Apple mobile processors, his foundry business revenue is growing fast, now is the worldwide no.3 company, and has a very little gap to Global Foundries, who is the no.2 foundry company. Of course, as the Samsung’s expectation, to be the no.1 is his target, that is, the major competitor he focused is TSMC who is the foundry leader with near 50% market share and gross margin. TSMC is always the leading company among Taiwan enterprises. To face more and more domestic industries to lose business due to the competition with Samsung, all Taiwanese start to expect TSMC is able to win the battle. However, faced with the new competition is quite different from the pure foundry industry, TSMC will come up with what the coping strategies? Samsung have any new strategy? This study attempts to analyze the two companies their past and current strategies, finally make recommendation to future actions for industry reference. The study found that TSMC is still a competitive advantage because of economies of scale in the foundry industry and strong customer trust, advanced technology process, however, has always been the major TSMC profitable niche source, to the continuation of Moore's Law, it is necessary to have higher capital assets investments, although TSMC's financial position seems sound, but for long-term consideration, to prepare more resources and have much stronger financial plan maybe is the most important strategy for TSMC to go next phase. The other hand, to Samsung, his own product may cover the capacity shortage issue when Apple leaves in the short term, however, he must need other customers for his foundry business in the long-term development. How to build up the “trust” with customers who maybe are his competitors at the same time is the big challenge to Samsung. TSMC chairman Morris Chang estimated that in 2013 the foundry will have a growth rate of more than 10%. Due to the hot selling of different mobile device products, PC market is shrinking and makes Intel also announced its entry into foundry services, soon snatched TSMC customer Altera, with more and more IDM companies began to join in the competition, and plus the tightly catch up by second-line foundries, ex. Global foundries and UMC, TSMC will face more and more pressure than before, however, just same as Morris said, now tsmc can do is to hold the determination to win, then step by step to face new challenges, who knows it may be another new wonderful milestone.