Title: 結果狀態的研究、漢語動貌『過』的語意解釋及其相互關連
The Study of Result States and the Aspectuo-Temporal Meaning of GUO in Mandarin Chinese
Authors: 廖秀真
Xiu-Zhen Liao
Jo-Wang Lin
Keywords: 過;動貌;自然終結點;結果狀態;詞彙內容;述補式複合詞;句法語意介面;guo;aspect;telicity;result state;lexical content;resultative verb compound;syntax-semantics interface
Issue Date: 2002
Abstract: 此篇論文主要研究漢語動貌『過』的時間意義,除了探討其與各種辭彙內容(lexical contents) 的共存情況外,尤其特別處理『過』兩種語意解釋的起源—『中斷解釋』(discontinuity interpretation)及『經驗解釋』(experiential interpretation)。本文論辯上述兩種語意解釋的區別導因於邏輯部門(LF)裡結果狀態(result state)的存在(existence)與指明(specification)情況。此篇論文提出,具有自然終結點的情狀(situation),可能帶有句法上可取得(syntactically accessible)或不可取得(syntactically non-accessible)的結果狀態。前者包括了兩個次類:一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述(有定)主語的結果狀態,另一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述有定賓語的結果狀態。後者也包括了兩個次類:一為當動詞具有自然終結點且帶有描述無定賓語的結果狀態,另一為當情狀為組合性的完成述語(compositional accomplishment)。本文對於結果狀態的假設,主要奠基於Ramchand et al.的辭彙—句法途徑(lexical-syntactic approach) (發展於自1997至2003一系列的作品)來呈現句法表徵,並採Kratzer (2002)假設的自然終結點的結構及Tsai(1999, 2001)的『擴張的照應假設』(extended mapping hypothesis)。尤其提出兩個因素來論述結果狀態的取得情況。其一為自然終結點的衍生方法。自然終結點的衍生方法將用來論證與代表結果狀態的XP是否投射出來相關。另一因素則為結果狀態可能指明(specified)或未指明(underspecified),而其取決關鍵為主要語R可以陳述(be predicated of)強量化的名詞(strongly quantified NPs),而不可陳述弱量化的名詞(weakly quantified NPs)。 大致而言,本文總結漢語動貌『過』具有一致的的時間意義,其為主題時間(topic time)座落於詞彙內容所指明的時段之後,而『過』的各種時間解釋起於辭彙內容的差異。本文採用句法—語意的理論方法,顯示複雜的時間及動貌相關現象,可藉由語意的輔助,於句法上作介面處理,以探討情狀與動貌的互動情形。
This thesis studies the aspectuo-temporal meaning of GUO, with all kinds of lexical contents examined and with special attention paid to the rising of two interpretations of GUO—the “discontinuity” interpretation and the “experiential” interpretation. The contrast between these two is claimed to be relevant to the (non)existence or (under)specification of a result state in the LF component. This thesis proposes that two types of telic situations have syntactically accessible result states, and the other two have syntactically non-accessible result states. The former are inherently telic verbs with (definite) subject-oriented result states and inherently telic verbs with definite object-oriented result states; the latter are inherently telic verbs with indefinite object-oriented result states and compositional accomplishments. The assumption of result states in this paper is based on the lexical-syntactic approach of Ramchand et al. to syntactic representations (developed in a serial of works ranging from 1997 to 2003) and is leaned on the analysis of telicity’s structure proposed by Kratzer (2002) and the Extended Mapping Hypothesis (EMH) proposed by Tsai (1999, 2001). Particularly, two factors are pointed out to determine the accessibility of result states. The first factor is how telicity is derived. The ways of derivation are argued to be relevant to the projection of an XP denoting a result state. As to the second factor, result states may be specified or underspecified by the reasoning that the head R could be predicated of strongly quantified NPs but not of weakly quantified NPs in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, this thesis concludes that GUO has a uniform aspectual-temporal meaning, i. e. T-T located in post-time of the time span specified by lexical contents, and various aspectual interpretations of GUO result form differences in lexical properties. The syntax-semantic approach in this thesis illustrates that with the help of semantic analyses, some complex aspectuo-temporal phenomena may be dealt with structurally with a thorough investigation of how situation types and aspect markers interact.
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