標題: 台北市立天文科學教育館民營化或行政法人化的策略選擇
The choice of different operation models of Taipei Astronomical Museum
作者: 陳俊良
Jun-Liang Chen
Dr. Chyan Yang
關鍵字: 天文館;社教機構;民營化;行政法人化;營運模式;策略;Taipei Astronomical Museum(TAM);Museum;contract out;becoming corporation;operation model;strategy
公開日期: 2002
摘要: 本研究係以台北市立天文科學教育館(天文館)為個案主題,探討公立博物館營運模式應作何改變的策略選擇。隨著社會多元化的發展及全球化的趨勢,行政部門僵化的管理方式與經營績效之不彰日漸升高民眾的不滿;加上政府財政日益困窘,而民間企業卻相對蓬勃發展,在資源有限的策略思考下,自1980年代起,世界各國紛紛湧現解除管制的思潮,重新考慮政府所應扮演的角色,認為政府應著重於政策制訂,而政策之執行與服務提供則應盡量交由民間力量來處理。在此同時,為避免淹沒在時代的洪流之中,提高文化認同,以及因應科技快速發展,滿足大眾對科學知識的渴望並避免社會不公的惡性循環現象,博物館日受重視,總數與類型不斷增加,社會大眾更希望其能發揮一定之社教功能。 在台灣,行政機關組織再造已成為現階段政府施政重點之一,政府改造委員會也針對非公權力本質機關,提出「委外化」、「行政法人化」、「去任務化」及「地方化」等選項供既存組織或機關選擇,希望能逐步解除其公務體制的束縛,提高營運績效。博物館等社教機構為首要目標之一,然而這些選項各有其優缺點,究竟應朝何種方向努力並無明確定論。對天文館而言,雖無立即改變營運模式之壓力,若能及早思考,擇定一種營運模式做為未來目標,從而逐步調整營運體質,相信有助於達成天文館的教育使命等立館宗旨,同時可追求永續生存與發展。 研究流程首先收集相關文獻資料,介紹天文館的歷史、組織概況、立館宗旨與營運現況,同時觀察整理其目前面臨之營運困境與衝擊,並對相關產業進行深入分析探討後,以SWOT策略分析選擇的方法,提出天文館未來可能可行的策略,並從中歸納出最佳的營運模式,再利用深度訪談的方式加以驗證。 經過分析,天文館目前擁有一批將志趣與工作相結合的員工,卻受限於環境而缺乏行銷與創意等概念;實體設備雖有多項為國內所獨有,卻也隱含著更新不易與施做不當等問題;科教市場雖具成長潛力,卻受限於制度與保守心態而無法盡情開發,滿足需求…為了讓天文館有更大的揮灑空間,又能兼顧社會服務的使命,筆者認為首要之務,應是朝向「公、民合營」的營運模式發展對現階段的天文館較為有利,但仍需要種種條件的配合,實務上執行時也可能會遭遇諸多阻礙,為解決困境,除需爭取政府及各界支持,最重要的是館內同仁的配合,因此建議在擬定相關計畫之時,應給予館內同仁充分討論的空間與時間以建立共識。
This thesis studied the choice of different operation models of TAM (Taipei Astronomical Museum). As the society becomes more diversified and globalized, people are more and more dissatisfied about the inactive and low efficiency of the executive departments. Besides, the government property is becoming poor, but the power of enterprises grows up. In consideration of the limited resources, privatization becomes the main trend of the Government restructure motion in many countries from 1980. It means that the Government should work hard to draw up of the policy, and depend on the private departments to carry out the policy and provide the public service. Meanwhile, the identification of self culture seems more important. People want to know more about the science because it develops very fast and maybe the main gap to lead to different social classes and bring about more problems. The museums are problem-solvers, so more and more amounts and different types of museums appear in the world. People want the museums work more efficiency to bring their functions into full play. The same situation appears in Taiwan. The Government wants to reorganize the administrative organizations. Their operation model have been supposed to be 「contract out」, 「becoming corporation」, 「get off the assignments」 or 「localize」, if they are less connected with the public power. In fact, the Government hopes to improve the efficiency of these administrative organizations such as the museums, because these choices could remove their constraints. But there are lots of challenges to make different choices, for example, many people believe that the Government would elude her responsibilities about the educations, if the museums choose to contract out. So which choice should TAM choose to be her operation model in future is very important. The first part of the thesis gathered related documents and introduced the background of TAM. After researched into the related industry and compared with the other competition, the table of SWOT analysis showed that TAM has wonderful staff who combine their work with interest. But they should be released from rigid constraint of the public system to work more smartly and aggressively. Besides, the facilities could be the only one in Taiwan, but they still had some problems and needed to be further studied…etc. So combining the public with the enterprise to jointly operate TAM is the best choice. Of course all staff of TAM should discuss this issue and make sure how to reach the wonderful state.