標題: 大眾媒體的網咖休閒論述—從語藝分析的觀點談起
Leisure Discourse about Internet Cafes in Mass Media : A Rhetorical Criticism Perspective
作者: 林希展
Shi-jaan Lin
Chien Chou
Pei-chi Chung
關鍵字: 網路咖啡店;休閒;幻想主題分析;電動玩具;大眾媒體;Internet Cafe;Leisure;Fantasy Theme Analysis;Electronic Games;Mass Media
公開日期: 2002
摘要: 網咖(網路咖啡廳)自1995年底開始出現在台灣,隨著網路使用的日益常民化,網咖至今已逐漸成為台灣社會極為普遍而盛行的都市休閒場域。由於滲雜了科技與娛樂的性質,網咖往往成為新聞媒體報導的焦點,特別是在近年來由於網咖急速成長而引發的政策規範與場所正當性的爭議中,新聞媒體的報導影響了一般社會大眾對於網咖的認識。 本研究從語藝批評的觀點出發,以Bormann所提出的幻想主題分析(Fantasy theme analysis)方法針對大眾媒體所傳遞的網咖休閒論述進行研究。本研究以中國時報與聯合報為主要研究對象,共抽取了自1992年至2002年底之間總計352則的網咖相關新聞報導,採逐句分析的方式登錄幻想主題以凝聚出語藝視野。歸納結果發現了先後兩股語藝視野,前者「網路樂土的捷徑」出現在網咖興起之初(1995~1998),將網咖視為網路社會來臨的象徵,藉由網咖所提供的高速網路與集體休閒氣氛,以及網咖業者所秉持的社會教育理念,消費者得以從中體驗網路所帶來的種種便利,網咖因而成了理想而充滿魅力的休閒場域。此一語藝視野在近年來(1999~2002)則被「浮士德的交易」所取代,所描述的是雖然網咖的普及帶動了資訊建設與相關產業的發展,然而由於青少年在網咖內的留連不去與隨之引發的種種脫序情事,使得網咖休閒成了一項代價頗鉅的魔鬼交易,不但危及青少年的身心發展,社會秩序也頻頻受到挑戰,繼而引來了主流社會對青少年的管制與規訓。 本研究認為,網咖的形象之所以產生前後如此劇烈的轉變,主要是受到過往電動玩具的集體記憶的影響。由於網路遊戲的風靡,使得網咖普遍被視為過往電動玩具店的翻版,儘管頂著網路科技的光環,實質上對於未成熟的青少年卻有著成癮、暴力影響、色情污染、甚至引發偏差行為等負面效應。藉由剖析語藝視野所隱含的語藝動機、權力關係、以及文化意涵,一種可能普遍為社會大眾所接受的「網咖真實」得以被揭露:整體而言,網咖語藝視野的轉變所暗示的是盤據社會的休閒理性觀,要求青少年從事休閒活動必須知所節制,並且必須選擇有益身心正常發展的休閒型式;更是一種延續工作倫理的休閒次要觀,視休閒活動為青少年正常課業之下的剩餘選擇,僅僅是在不影響正常生活的前提下而被允許的一種具有再生產效果的活動。此種休閒觀不但忽視了人類固有的遊玩本能與需求,也壓抑了感官享受的非理性本能,拒絕了生活中的真實經驗,青少年所處的此種休閒劣勢,也極需以「生活政治」的實踐來加以提昇。
The first Internet Café in Taiwan appeared in the late 1995. With the coming of information society, Internet Cafés gradually become an omnipresent leisure space in Taiwan cities. Intertwined with technology and leisure, the space of Internet Café has always been the focus of news reporting. The daily news reporting about Internet Cafés affect the way people see, interpret, even imagine this leisure space, especially in issues about policy regulation and leisure legitimacy. Using Borman’s “Fantasy Theme Analysis”, this study analyzed the appearance of Internet Cafés in mass media, in particular, the printed news. A total of 352 pieces of news were sampled from China Times and United Daily News from 1992 to 2002. Fantasy themes were coded separately via character, action, and setting. Finally two rhetorical visions were induced. The first vision appeared proximately in the period of 1995 to 1998. It described that the appearance of Internet Cafés was a sign of information society. Owing to the educational ideal of suppliers, consumers could experience the pleasure of cyberspace without burden. The Internet Cafés thus became “a way to the promised land of cyberspace.” However, this vision was gradually replaced by another one during 1999 to 2002. During this period, Internet Cafés became more and more penetrating because of the rapid growth of the fascinating on-line game and the information industry. However, because of the youth deviant behaviors in the space and the issues of regulation arguments, the “trade of Faust” vision appeared. The collected memory about amusement arcades has largely influenced the image transformation of Internet Cafés. Due to the growing population of on-line games, Internet Cafés are usually identified with amusement arcade. With the appearance of Internet technology, the “immature” youth are considered at the risk of affecting by some negative impacts, such as addiction, violence, pornography, and deviant behavior in the Internet Cafés. By means of analyzing the motives, power relations, and cultural implications conveyed by rhetorical vision, this study presented a possible “social reality” about Internet Cafés acquainted or constructed by the mass. In general, the transformation of rhetorical vision implies a rationality of leisure, which requests that youth must choose leisure activities beneficial to both their body and mind, they should act moderately in leisure times, and these activities must be under “mature” adults’ supervision. It also implied that work ethics which deemed leisure a subordinate choice to normal school work. Under the circumstance of not influencing normal schedule, leisure is thus a permitted activity having reproductive effects. This kind of leisure attitude may heavily ignore that human beings have the need to play, and also deny the accumulation of real life experiences. It is considered that the inferiority which youth are facing may be solved by the practice of life politics.