A Computer Aided Milling-Cutter Manufacturing System For Five-Axis CNC Tool Grinder
|關鍵字:||切削刀具;銑刀;工具磨床;螺旋溝槽;電腦輔助製造;數值控制;Cutting Tool;Milling Cutter;Tool Grinder;Helical Groove;Computer Aided Manufacture;Numerical Control|
|摘要:||在機械製造加工過程中，切削刀具(Cutting Tool)是不可或缺且為最重要的工具之一，刀具的性能和品質的優劣對於切削加工的精度、效率和產品品質皆有直接且嚴重的影響。在加工工件之複雜曲面造型，銑削作業佔了大部分，因而我們對於銑刀(Milling Cutter)本身的要求就不得不謹而慎之。過去，用以研磨刀具之傳統工具磨床，限於機能不足需配予研磨附件，是以採分段研磨方式，因而喪失了部分銑刀精度、且導致銑削作業時之排屑不順。更者，一般製造者對於銑刀之螺旋溝槽(Helical Groove)研磨的技術，乃是從無數次試誤法中取得之寶貴經驗，缺乏一致且共通之研磨依據，使得研磨作業遲遲無法標準化。近年來由於多軸CNC(Computer Numerical Control)工具磨床的開發，銑刀研磨方式可採一次研磨完成，有助於銑刀精度的提升與銑削作業時之排屑流暢。然而在實際上，國內之刀具研磨作業仍存在一些製程系統整合上的問題，較明顯的就是缺乏一套有效之電腦輔助製造系統(Computer Aided Manufacture System)，輔以刀具設計與研磨程序之規劃，以達到整體作業之彈性化和自動化。
Cutting tools play a very important role in the field of mechanical manufacturing. The performance and quality of tools have direct and serious influences on the precision and efficiency of cutting machining and the quality of products. Milling operations are predominantly used for milling complex surface shapes. So we must be careful with the demand of milling cutters themselves. In the past, the traditional tool grinder was being used to grind tools limited to a few functions and needed other grinding attachments, to take the grinding separately. By doing so, it loses some precision of the milling cutters and resulting in eliminating chips unevenly in milling operations. Moreover, for common manufacturers, the technique of helical groove machining of the milling cutters is still approached from an empirical trial and error method. Owing to lack of identical and common basis of milling, this makes the milling operations standardized lately. Recently, the development of the multi-axes CNC tool grinder makes it possible to finish just one process. By this way, it is helpful to get better precision of the milling cutters and eliminate chips smoothly. However, there are still some integral problems of manufacturing system existing in the domestic tool grinding operations. What is obvious is the lack of an effective CAM system, which is necessary to design milling cutters and plan the grinding process, so as to attend the goal of flexibility and automation of the all operations. This research is trying to build the mathematical geometry model of milling cutters firstly, and then to develop the simulation software of grinding milling cutters. The functions of the software include the cross-profile evaluation mode of milling cutters after grinding. The user-friendly processes planning mode is also provided. The proposed system provides post process to generate NC code for specified five-axes CNC tool grinder. It enables us to submit NC code to the tool grinder to process machining via RS232 port or other specified I/O port. V ERICUT Simulation Software and laser displacement detector is adopted to measure the tool profile of the grinded products. If needed, compensation of some typical parameter is available. Beside of the development of integrated software system, the five-axes tool grinding machine system, NCTU_CIDM_TOOL 2002, is also constructed for evaluation and demonstration of the study.
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