標題: 從制度面探討電信自由化過程共用電信設施之管理課題
A Preliminary Study of the Institutional and Operational Issues on the Sharable Telecom Facilities under the Policy of Telecom Liberalization
作者: 張應中
Chang, In-Chung
Charng-Horng Hsieh
Chyan Yang
關鍵字: 共用性電信設施;公設地上權;路權;事物之本質;類型;類推適用;公益;管理課題;the sharable telecom facilities;public property right;road right;essential qualities of objects;Type;applicability of analogy;public interest;operational issues
公開日期: 2001
摘要: 我國為因應全球電信自由化趨勢並遵循WTO入會承諾,於民國85年起參考電信先進國家經驗,結束官署兼營電信事業型態,另成立國營電信公司經營電信事業;同時採取階段自由化方式,於八十六年起先陸續開放無線行動通信業務,至八十九年起始開放以投資傳輸設備基礎建設之服務業,即目前所謂之固定網路通信服務業者,該事業因係利用自然資源如空中之電波頻率及稀有土地為經營的基礎。在官署獨占經營至市場寡占型態過程中,引發這些稀少資源的重分配,也鬆動了市場版圖,利益的衝突自然難免且方興未艾,然而處理這類資源重分配問題遠比資源分配更為棘手。例如,雖然在固網通信業務開放,但就設施管道部分仍處於獨占狀態,業者必須從零開始建置自有之管道設施,為達成政府普建寬頻網路之目標,要求每家業者至少應實收400億元之資本額、100萬用戶門號或通信埠之最低系統容量,及15萬用戶門號與通信埠之開台門檻等經營義務,因此,業者必須在一定時程內完成設施管道及寬頻網路之建置鋪設。此一階段,市場上既有業者擁有絕大多數基礎設施而為市場主導者,新參進業者因對基礎設施面臨諸多新建困難,很難於短時間跨過進入市場競爭門檻,爭議於是浮現。 回顧我國有關電信基礎設施之管理規範係沿襲歐盟國家有關網路互連及設施共用之管理制度,然而依上述觀察我國電信自由化的時程及措施有其特點,在外國法律制度內國化方面,對本土電信市場與環境宜有更深入及廣泛的研究,爰有本篇之作。 在研究事項方面,分四項剖析及論証並獲致以下研究成果: 其一、歸納我國電信自由化過程在「電信設施」管理(建設、使用、維護)所面臨的爭議:以「事物本然之理」探索「電信設施」的本質特性,以及問題產生的根本原因、以「類型」學說歸類電信設施爭議事實並推導出其基本特徵。 其二、設定及分析電信自由化過程具共用性「電信設施」之主要管理課題:將管理課題設定為1.財產權、2.資源稀少、3.公益、4.經營效率、5.公平競爭等五項管理課題。 其三、研提共用性「電信設施」之認定與審驗原則:經以上述五項管理課題推導論証四項之認定與審驗原則如1.絕對必須共用2.彈性共用3.不得拒絕共用4.不得共用等情形。 其四、依上述共用「類型」研提一套具制度功能的「共用電信設施」管理架構:提出既有設施共用組織架構及未來新建設施共用的組織架構。包含業者共用的推演及執行程序,並提出業者共用合作的基本權利義務規範。 本論文之作,即從我國電信自由化過程中,所面臨電信基礎設施之建設、使用及維護所產生之管理課題,從制度面向探究、分析各項管理課題的性質,並嚐試提出「共用電信設施管理架構」以減少業者間爭議並能促進公平競爭環境。
In response to the liberalization of global telecommunications and observance of undertakings for accession to World Trade Organization (WTO), a national telecommunication company was established to replace the government controlled telecommunication monopoly by referring to the experiences of industrialized countries. The liberalization of telecommunications was phased in 1997 in relaxation of the wireless mobile telecommunications businesses till 2000 for relaxation of investment in facilities-based service, which is called the fix network operator at present stage. The business triggers the redistribution of these very few resources by taking advantage of natural resources, such as radio frequency and operation on very few lands, in the process of government controlled monopoly through to oligopoly that relaxes the market territory. The conflict of interests cannot be avoided growing, yet the dilemma of redistributing resources is even more difficult to handle, comparing to that of resource distribution. For instance, the facilities based channels are monopoly that the business owners have to build up their own channel facilities with zero albeit the relaxation of fix network operation. Each business is required to establish with paid-up capital of forty billion new Taiwan dollars and with a minimum system capacity of a million phone’s numbers or ports, and to start business with 150 thousand phone’s numbers at the threshold of operation in order to achieve the goal set by the government that broadband network shall be widely established. Under such circumstances, the business owner shall finish the layout of facilities channel and broadband networks within the specified time frame. At this stage, the incumbent business owners who own the majority of infrastructure become the market dominator, while the entrants encounter the challenge of establishing new infrastructure and fail to cross the threshold of market possession, therefore, the disputes arise. The specifications for the telecommunication infrastructure in the Republic of China are established in accordance with the EU network and operation on sharable facilities. With a view of the uniqueness concerning the time frame and adopted measures for liberalization of telecommunications industry in this country, and in consideration of nationalization of foreign laws, it is required to conduct study in-depth and widely on local telecommunication market and its environment. So, the study to explore this issue. The study is conducted based on analysis and argument in four areas and come to conclusion as follows: 1. Induction in the disputes on operation in “telecommunication facilities” (construction, use and maintenance): the study attempts to discover the essential qualities of “telecommunication facilities” based on its “originality”, the causes that the issues incur, and classification of various “sharable” basic and changeable type telecommunication facilities according to “Type” methodology. 2. Assumption and analysis on major operational issues of sharable “telecommunication facilities” in the process of telecommunication liberalization. The management issues are set in respect of: (1) property right; (2) scarcity of resources; (3) public interest; (4) operational efficiency; (5) fair play. 3. Proposition of principles for recognition and review: based on the five operational issues as mentioned in previous paragraph, the following four principles for recognition and review will be induced and proved: (1) absolutely sharable; (2) flexibly sharable; (3) non-declinable sharable; (4) non-sharable. 4. Based on the recognition of “Type” specified in previous paragraph, a system of perational structure for “sharable telecommunication facilities” will be proposed: such as a sharable infrastructure being established on basis of existing sharable facilities and newly constructed facilities, and procedure for inference and implementation on business sharing, as well as the code for sharable and cooperative duties and obligations for business owners. The study is conducted on the issues regarding the operation of construction, use and maintenance of sharable telecom facilities in the process of liberalization of telecommunications in this country in terms of operational system. The study attempts to explore and analyze the operational issues, and propose a system of “operational structure for sharable telecom facilities” that might decrease the disputes among business owners and facilitate to establish a fair play environment through liberalization.