標題: 半導體測試業之競爭合作策略–以南茂科技為例
The Co-opetition Strategies of Semi-conductors Testing Company – ChipMOS Technologies Inc. Case
作者: 詹焜智
Kun-Chih Chan
Po-Young Chu
關鍵字: 半導體測試業;競爭合作策略;市場成長策略;生產營運策略;研究發展策略;關鍵成功因素;Co-opetition Strategies;development strategies;Marketing Growth;Operating Strategies;Research and Development Strategies;Strategies;key factors;success
公開日期: 2000
摘要: 半導體測試業之競爭合作策略 – 以南茂科技為例 學生:詹焜智 指導教授:朱博湧 博士 國立交通大學管理研究所高階主管管理碩士學程 摘 要 1997~98年全球IC景氣跌入谷底,位居下游之測試業明顯遭到壓縮。幸好1999年全球IC產業復甦,DRAM供需漸趨平衡,國內DRAM測試價格便因此能夠調漲,使以記憶體測試為主的我國測試業,終能走出陰霾。1999年我國測試廠商總數成長為33家,員工人數高達7,389人。在整體IC產業中, IC測試業佔整體IC產業比重僅為4.3%,但在全球專業分工趨勢及投資持續進行下,未來比重應會提高。 1999年以來,全球IDM公司的策略發展有下述七大趨勢:組織重整、購併風盛行、合作聯盟、降低DRAM營收比重、系統單一晶片(SOC)與MCM的發展、釋出代工訂單、應用為導向 – IA系統產品。 封裝因應散熱功率的增加、接腳數目的增加、可攜式產品增多的需求,封裝體積縮小是未來技術發展的必然趨勢。因此國內封裝技術未來發展會朝向Thermally Enhanced 的封裝、Flip Chip BGA、低於晶粒尺寸1.2倍的CSP、Wafer-Level CSP及覆晶技術(Flip Chip)等方向發展。 隨著銅製程時代的來臨以及系統單晶片(SoC)成為趨勢,晶片的傳輸速度會越來越快, IC功能將更加複雜。測試困難度的增加,已促使測試技術上作改變,如發展DFT (Design-for-Testability)技術,或提供內建自我測試(Built-in Self-Test: BIST)功能,以降低IC之測試時間及成本。因此國內測試技術未來會朝向晶圓級測試技術及晶圓級預燒方向發展。 而個案公司經營策略大概可以簡單敘述如下: □ 市場成長策略:加強與母公司-茂矽電子及其策略聯盟夥伴之關係、加強研發能力、持續保有市場領先地位、密切注意高成長或具潛力的客戶、持續擴充TCP(Tape Carrier Packages) 的封裝及測試產能。 □ 生產營運策略:提高主要設備使用率、有效提高生產線人員工作效率、設備機種單純化、長遠而良好的廠商合作關係、長期培植國內設備廠商。 □ 研究發展策略:持續進行新封裝/測試技術之研發、鼓勵員工進行專利申請、加強與政府的研究機構合作、加強與學界的研發專案合作、加強環保製程研發不遺餘力。 總結來說,測試產業是個無自有產品的製造服務業,其關鍵成功因素為:一是規模經濟配合經營者有強烈的企圖心與高瞻遠矚的眼光;二是需要有經驗豐富的經營團隊加上完善的管理制度配合;三是以優越的工程技術及研發能力為後盾;最後若有策略聯盟伙伴的相助則是一個加項。
The Co-opetition Strategies of Semi-conductors Testing Company – ChipMOS Technologies Inc. Case Student: Kun-Chih Chan Advisor: Dr. Po-Young Chu Institute of Executive Master of Business Administration National Chiao Tung University ABSTRACT The world-wide semi-conductor was in the bottom of down cycle during year 1997 to 1998, the back-end testing house was seriously impacted in a significant way especially those companies whose products line are mainly for memory related. The stock price of those companies was in the lowest level due to the down stream of the worldwide semi-conductor market. Fortunately, the IC market was back again by the 2nd quarter in 1999. The demand and supply of Dram was getting balance. The Dram companies became profitable in the 2nd half of year 1999. With a great growth, there were 33 testing houses in Taiwan by end of year 1999, compared with that of the year 1998. Total employees reached to 7,389. The total revenue of those companies only contributed 4.3% to all over revenue of Taiwan IC industry. The ratio will be increased gradually for the trend of the release of subcontracting orders from the Integrated Design & Manufacturing companies worldwide. The development strategies of world-wide IDM companies follow the following trends started in 1999: the re-construction of organization to incorporate with the cost down pressure; merger and acquisition project in vogue; the alliance between companies, the Dram revenue has been reduced in some IDM companies; the development of SOC and MCM becomes mature; the volume of out-sourcing increase and product trend toward to IA related. Because of the IC fabricate technology rapidly enhanced, the SOC solution becomes popular and applicable, which induced the difficulty of assembly manufacturing due to thermal removal problem and the increase of the outer pin number. So, how to resolve the thermal issue and shrink the package size becomes the direction of future technology development in Taiwan assembly industry. The following assembly packages will be future stars: Thermally Enhanced Package, Flip Chip BGA, Chip Scale Package, Wafer-level CSP and Flip Chip. With the coming of copper process and SOC solutions, the chip operating frequency will getting faster and faster and the chip circuit is getting complex, so that the testing methodology is driven by the increasing testing difficulty. For example, inside the chip DFT (design-for-testability) technology is used to improve the controllability and observability by adding some additional circuit, and BIST (built-in Self-test) is used to reduce the testing time by adding some self-test circuit in a chip. So, the testing trend in the future is toward wafer-level testing and burn-in solutions. By the study of strategies of the case company, ChipMOS’s strategies can be summarized as follow: □ The Strategies of Marketing Growth: to strengthen the relationship with its strategic alliances; to enhance her research and development capability; to keep the leadership of the testing and assembly field; to keep an eye on high-growth or potential customers and to expand her testing and assembly service for TCP (Tape Carrier Package) area. □ Operating Strategies: to maintain high utilization of testers; to raise the efficiency of operators; to simplify the tester brand; to maintain a good relationship with equipment vendors and to patronize and assist local equipment vendors. □ Research and Development Strategies: to research & develop the new technology continuously in testing & assembly area; to enforce engineers to file more patent applications; to enhance the co-operation with government research organization; to enhance the co-join research programs with universities; moreover, to continuously devote to develop the environmental protection related processes such as lead-free and halogen-free process. In sum, as the testing house is a service company without her own products, the key factors to success are: Firstly, economic mass production scale together with the CEO’s strong inspiration and insight; An experienced operation team together with perfect management system; Excellent engineering capability and strong research & development team; Finally, having an strategic alliance with some IDM manufacturing companies will be a plus.