Title: 創業家觀點之風險創業評估與策略空間
Entrepreneur’s Perspective on Venture Evaluation and Strategic Space
Authors: 吳雪舫
Steve H. F. Wu
楊 千
Chyan Yang
Keywords: 創業評估;策略空間;評估架構;策略定位;產品生命週期;產業結構;創業機會;Venture Evaluation;Strategic space;Evaluation framework;Strategic positioning;Product life cycle;Industry structure;Venture opportunity
Issue Date: 2000
Abstract: 本論文旨在透過創業者的觀點與經驗回顧,來探討創業者所面臨的挑戰以及影響創業成敗的要素。研究重點在於分析創業環境與機會、產業結構、產品生命週期、策略性態度等因素對實際創業行為的影響。影響創業成敗的因素錯綜複雜,決策議題涉及的層面廣泛,透過文獻探討與彙整,本研究提出技術創業的創業計畫分析架構,包括屬於外在環境因素的市場構面與時機構面、屬於內在資源條件的人才構面與技術構面以及屬於創業策略因素的策略構面與資金構面。並依據此一評估架構,選擇台灣印刷電路板產業中一家新創的公司作為研究對象,利用訪談方式,深入瞭解創業者如何分析創業環境、評估創業機會與資金設備人才等等資源需求,以及實際創業過程中的各項決策行為之思維辯證與決策理性。 「人才、技術、市場、時機、資金與策略」正可作為創業者評估其創業計畫可行性的基本架構,這六個維度也構成了創業者的策略空間,其空間大小決定了創業者的策略自由度。個案實證研究發現: 1. 技術的演變與產品功能的新需求衍生新商機,即使是競爭激烈的成熟產業如台灣的PCB產業,仍然存在創業的利基空間。技術創業者宜競逐少量、多樣,專業化的利基市場並選擇處於導入期較後階段的產品切入較有成功機會。 2. 企業的營運模式須配合客戶的價值取向,策略定位要能使企業的核心能力與該市場區隔的關鍵成功要素協調一致,並兼顧市場的的需求規模、獲利性、成長性。 3. 製造業的設廠地點有其策略性的考量。以技術為主要資源的新創事業首要議題為技術擴散的風險以及產業周邊支援體系是否充足。 4. 投資承諾常因政經環境的變化而落空,因此創業者應揚棄控制權的迷思,多募資金以備不時之需。具成長潛力的客戶入股有鎖定客戶、共同成長的策略價值。 5. 創業團隊須有深厚的產業經歷與人脈,新事業必須與過去的產業經驗相結合。團隊成員宜具備行銷背景並有突破困境的應變能力。
This paper investigates the challenges and strategies of a technology-based new venture through the perspective of entrepreneurs. The primary focus of this study is on the impact of environment, industry structure, product life cycle, and strategic attitude on the venture formation and business strategy. All firms are influenced by environment, but new ventures are more vulnerable to external shocks. Independent, technology-based ventures have complex array of strategic choices about how to compete in the market on the basis of their technological capacity and limited internal resources. To facilitate our study we developed an analytical framework based on the extensive literatures assessing the viability and performance of new ventures. Factors influence new venture’s performance are intricate, an appropriate explanation of entrepreneurial success is grounded in a company’s fundamental business concept and capability to accumulate and align resources with key success factors of entered industry. Therefore, our conceptual framework covers six managerial dimensions: market, timing, entrepreneurs, technology, capital and strategy. These six dimensions define a strategic space in which entrepreneurs make their choices. An empirical study was conducted by applying said analytical framework to a startup in PCB industry. The results of this study reveal that: 1. A viable entrepreneurial opportunity exists in the highly competitive Taiwan’s PCB industry. It is advisable for a technology-based new venture to enter into a niche business at its late introductory stage of product life cycle. 2. Value proposition shall meet customers’ priority needs. Strategic positioning shall align its core competence with the KSF of entered segment. 3. Manufacturing plant site has strategic implication. Risk of technological diffusion and local support of outsourcing are of major concerns for technology-based start-ups. 4. Committed capital is fickle, so surplus initial capital is more important than ownership and control. Growing customers as strategic shareholders is recommended. 5. The founding team shall have extensive experience and networks of the industry entered. Team members shall have street smart and marketing experience.
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