Title: 專家與生手設計者使用電腦媒材的認知差異: 一般性思考到創造性思考的歷程
Analysis of the use of computer media by expert and novice designers: From general to creative thinking
Authors: 陳聖智
Sheng-Chih Chen
劉 育 東
Yu-Tung Liu
Keywords: 電腦媒材;專家生手;設計思考;創造力;口語分析;computer media;expert and novice;design thinking;creativity;protocol analysis
Issue Date: 2000
Abstract: 電腦媒材的出現對傳統設計產生了多方的衝擊,有許多研究顯示電腦能夠輔助設計早期構想發展階段,探討電腦的運算與操作及設計方法與過程之間的互動關係,讓電腦對設計創作上發生新的影響,使得電腦媒材逐漸成為設計思考的媒介。關於電腦輔助設計的研究已有許多被提出,使用媒材所產生的認知影響更是關鍵性,另一方面有關電腦輔助創造性思考的議題也開始發展,專家與生手設計者使用電腦媒材進行構想發展的認知行為,將對於電腦輔助設計的未來有著深遠的影響。 因而本研究在探討建築教育電腦媒材的使用及創造力,主要結合認知科學及教育心理學來分析專家與生手在使用電腦媒材的認知現象,並對電腦媒材與創造力的關係加以討論,試以設計與教育結合以對電腦輔助設計提供未來參考意見。 研究進行分兩部分實驗,首先是探討一般性思考的認知實驗,以放聲思考及影音回溯獲取專家與生手的口語資料,進行編碼分析,並得到專家與生手的認知模式。第二部分的實驗是探討創造性思考的認知實驗,以影音回溯與深度訪談進行,得到一些現象與模式,分析電腦媒材是否能激發創造力,並提出專家與生手激發出創造力的時機及彼此不同的創造力特質。
The impact of computer design media on conventional design media can be found manifested in many differing areas of design, and there has been extensive research into the role played by computer-aided design in providing aid during the early developmental stages of design. Such research has discussed the inter-reaction of computational and operational aspects of computer design with the design process as a whole, research that has bought to light new ways in which computer technology is acting to influence design, as well as the gradual evolution of computer design into a medium of design thought. In particular, it has been shown that computer design is able to influence design creativity, and research in this respect has focused on the ways in which it is now acting to influence design cognition, as well as the impact it is acting to influence on creative thought, and the cognitive behavior of expert and novice designers. Thus, in future years the influence of computer-aided design in respect to the areas discussed above is likely to be extensive and far-reaching. Because this research paper explores issues relating to the uses of architectural education and creativity, its principle strategy has been to make use of a combined cognitive science and educational psychology model to analyze the differing approaches of novices and experts in respect to the use of design media, and also discusses the relationship between computer design media and creativity, and will thus be able to serve as a reference point for designers in future years in respect to the ways in which, design, education, and computer-aided design inter-react with each other. The research consists of two experiments, the first of which is concerned with the non-creative thought cognitive model, and utilizes direct interviews as well audio-visual recording methods to obtain data in respect to novices and experts, which is then analyzed using a coding model. The second experiment was aimed at providing an in-depth exploration of the cognitive model determined by the creative thought process, and use was made of recording media as well as in-depth interviews as a means of building a conceptual model, as well as obtaining general data. From the model thus obtained, this paper was able to examine the question as to whether or not the computer is able to aid the creative process, as well as providing an examination of the differences in timing between novices and experts in respect to creative output, and a comparison of the different types of creativity exhibited by novices and experts.
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