Title: 消費者之社會階層、家庭生命週期與其汽車產品屬性重視類別之關聯性研究—以台北市汽車潛在購買者為例
Study on the Inter-relationships among the Car Attributes for Consumers with Varied Social Class and Family Life Cycle
Authors: 蕭夙君
Su-Chun Hsiao
Prof. Jaw-Ming Chen
Keywords: 社會階層;家庭生命週期;汽車產品屬性;social class;family life cycle;car product attributes
Issue Date: 2000
Abstract: 貧富差距懸殊,一個由經濟力劃分的社會階層逐漸形成,舉凡在住宅區、進出場所、休閒娛樂的品味、各種俱樂部、汽車、化妝品、服飾、皮鞋品牌等等,都出現了階層區分。此外,以往在消費者行為研究議題上所採用的區隔變數大多為年齡變項,但已有學者研究並建議應將行銷重點放在家庭決策的制定方面,故提倡以家庭生命週期變項取代年齡變項較為適合。再者,由於國民所得大幅提高,對汽車之需求急劇增加,汽車普及率大為提高,國民對汽車的消費觀念已由奢侈品轉移為生活必需品。且汽車屬於公開之外顯性產品,消費者對汽車產品屬性重視類別應該會受其所處之社會階層與家庭生命週期階段之影響。 本研究主要目的在於探討不同社會階層及家庭生命週期的消費者,對汽車屬性重視之類別及其差異。並根據研究結果,提供汽車行銷訴求上之建議。考量研究時間與經費之限制,本研究以台北市年齡20~60歲之汽車潛在消費者為研究對象,將消費者之社會階層以職業與教育程度兩者之加權分數劃分為高、中、低三層;而消費者之家庭生命週期則依婚姻狀態、有無子女、子女年齡、子女就業或就學狀態區分為單身期、夫婦二人期、滿巢一期、滿巢二期、滿巢三期及滿巢末期等六個週期;在汽車屬性重視類別項目方面,則參考過去國內、外所作過的汽車屬性研究,綜合歸納34項汽車屬性,每一屬性均採Likert五點尺度來衡量重視程度。採用分層、比例、隨機抽樣方法,隨機抽樣780位消費者加以面訪,取得有效問卷725份。 在資料分析上,先將所得的有效樣本作初步的檢視,包含樣本人口統計資料分析及汽車產品屬性項目分析;其次,透過因素分析將34項汽車屬性縮減為「性能表現」、「安全性」、「售後服務」、「車型內裝與駕駛感觀」、「表達性」、「經濟性」與「延伸價值」等七個汽車屬性因素構面,俾利後續之分析。以因素分析後,變項縮減所得之七個因素構面作討論,利用多變量變異數分析(MANOVA)分析不同社會階層及家庭生命週期之消費者對汽車屬性重視類別之差異,並分析不同社會階層及家庭生命週期之消費者,在汽車屬性重視類別上是否有顯著之交互作用。 研究結果顯示: 整體樣本以不分群組方式來看,最重視的汽車屬性偏向安全方面的屬性類別,而最不重視的汽車屬性則偏向外部表徵方面的屬性類別。‚從社會階層的分組角度來看,不同社會階層的消費者,對「安全性」、「車型內裝與駕駛感觀」及「經濟性」此三項上重視程度一致,其餘四項的重視程度則有顯著差異。ƒ從家庭生命週期分組角度來看,不同家庭生命週期的消費者,對「安全性」及「表達性」此二項上重視程度一致,其餘五項上的重視程度則有顯著差異。„社會階層等級與家庭生命週期階段在「性能表現」因素及「售後服務」因素上的交互作用達顯著水準,其餘的汽車屬性因素均未達顯著水準。 在競爭激烈的年代中,要贏得消費者的青睞,必須要滿足消費者的需求。因此,最後依據研究結果,分別從社會階層及家庭生命週期兩方面分群提出建議,供汽車經銷商與製造商制定行銷策略之參考。
Under extreme disparity between the rich and the poor, a so-called social class, such as the differentiation of tastes of living and the chase for brands of goods, is getting into shape out of the segmentation of economic power. In addition, the most common discriminant variable adopted by preceding studies on consumers’ behavior is “Age”. However, modern researches suggest that the marketing shall focus on the family decision-making establishment, thereby advocating the “family life cycle” variable in lieu of the “Age” variable. Moreover, following giant enhancement of national income, the rampant demand for car has increase its popularity tremendously, turning it from luxurious goods into necessary goods. Concerning the outward dominant feature of this kind of goods, the consumers appriciate the product attributes of cars that shall have the influence by the consumers social class and family life cycle. This article is to explore the distribution and differentiation of the emphasis on the product attributes of cars for consumers with varied social class and family life cycle and to present advice to the appeal of car-marketing based on the research results. In consideration of the time and expenditure limitation, the selected subjects fall to the potential car-consuming Taipei residents aging from 20 to 60. Social classes of subjects are distributed into “upper”, “middle” and “lower” depending on weighted average of occupation and education; family life cycles of subjects are distributed into six stages depending on marriage and children status, which are “bachelor stage”, “married couple”, “full nest I”, “full nest II”, “full nest III” and “full nest ending”. As to car attributes, thirty-four items are generalized with reference to preceding relevant domestic and international documents. Degree of emphasis on each attribute is measured on the 5-point Likert-type scale. Stratification, proportion and random sampling methods are adopted with 725 effective questionnaires out of 780 randomly selective interviews. With regard to data analysis, the following procedure has been taken. Firstly, take a preliminary examination on effective subjects, including demographics and attribute item analysis. Next, reduce the thirty-four attributes into seven to construct a situation in favor of the succeeding labor via factor analysis. These constructions comprise “performance”, “safety”, “after-sale service”, “inside-décor & driving sensation”, “expressiveness”, “economy” and “extension value”.In utilization of MANOVA to analyze the differences and inter-relationships among the car attributes for consumers with varied social class and family life cycle. Results show that (1) overall subjects without grouping place the “safety” attribute on higher ranking and those attributes pertinent to outer appearance of cars on lower rankings. (2) under social class grouping, consumers exhibit consistent emphasis on “safety”, “inside-décor & driving sensation” and “expressiveness” attribute, with significant differences among the other four attributes. (3) under family life cycle grouping, consumers exhibit consistent emphasis on “safety” and “expressiveness” attribute, with significant differences among the other five attributes. (4) within the two groupings, “performance” and “after-sale service” reaches significant level in light of inter-relationship while the others do not. In times of intense competitiveness, it is necessary to meet the demands of consumers to win their preference. Based on the research results, this article proposes to car dealers and manufacturers the marketing decision-making strategies regarding from the social class and family life cycle viewpoint respectively.
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