標題: 以遊戲軟體為環境探討國小學生思考風格對問題解決歷程之影響
The effect of thinking style on the process of problem solving : A study of elementary school students using computer game as a milieu
作者: 柳銘巖
Ming-Yan Leo
孫春在
Dr. Chuen-Tasi Sun
理學院科技與數位學習學程
關鍵字: 思考風格;問題解決歷程;thinking style;problem solving process
公開日期: 2003
摘要: 面對日新月異的現代社會,知識快速的累積、更新,教育不應只是知識的傳授,更應該重視「獲取知識」的能力。培養學生「獨立思考」與「解決問題」的能力,使得他們將來離開學校,能適應多元變遷的社會,這才是更有意義的教學。 盱衡世界各國教改的趨勢,並為了國家發展的需求及回應社會各界的期待,教育部推動了「九年一貫課程」的教育改革運動,揭櫫了十大課程目標與十大基本能力,其中之一即為培養學生「獨立思考與解決問題的能力」。 「思考」與「問題解決」實為一體之兩面,乃是認知心理學所研究的重要課題,問題解決能力且為智慧能力的重要指標。本研究試圖探討不同「思考風格」的學生在「問題解決歷程」中有何不同的表現,希望能做為建構教學策略以提高教學效率的參考。 本研究的定位,在「思考風格」方面,以羅勃•史坦伯格(Robert J. Sternberg)的「心理自治」(Mental Self-government)所用的功能模式為準,將思考風格分為立法型、行政型及司法型;在「問題解決」方面,定位在處理「半結構問題」(semi-structured problem)、「頓悟性問題」(no insight problem);並將問題解決的歷程分為瞭解問題、探索分析、選擇策略、尋找答案、省思擴展五個歷程。 本研究以國科會87年度「兒童資訊月軟體設計展示:機械反斗城」計畫(編號NSC-87-2515-S-011-001-CH)為環境。該遊戲軟體共有六個單元,每一個單元各有一個獨特的問題情境,遊戲者必須自己觀察整個情境,運用推理能力找出問題之所在,以及相對應的解決方法。透過這個環境來探究不同「思考風格」的兒童是如何思考、如何解決問題。 本研究採用質性的研究方法,先以「思考風格問卷」對207名國小高年級學生進行調查,從中篩選出具風格特色者六位,進行遊戲實際觀察;而在遊戲進行時,以錄影機記錄整個過程,再轉譯成逐字稿以分析其特性,並透過訪談加以確認。 結果發現:在本研究的環境下,立法型學童的解題歷程,思考較為靈活、選擇策略多且能符合目標,不需要做太多的提示,可任其自由探索;行政型學童的解題缺乏目標、不善於面對思考的工作,需要楷模示範以引導探索;司法型學童的思考有跳躍、未能按部就班的情形,需要提示指引以規範其探索。
In time of change when knowledge updates and accumulates rapidly, the sphere of education should not only concern itself with "transmission of knowledge", but should also attend to the "method of obtaining knowledge". It will be a more meaningful education to equip the pupils with "independent thinking" and "problem solving skills" so that they will better adapt to the ever-changing societies. In line with global educational trend the Ministry of Education has embarked on an Educational Reform Action Program in response to the national demand and the public outcry. A nine year joint curricula plan is implemented which focuses on the 10 basic learning capabilities or skills. Among these is the skill of independent thinking and problem solving. "Thinking" and "problem solving" are two sides of a coin. They are important subjects in cognitive psychology. The problem solving ability in particular is a critical index of intelligence. The present work attempts to formulate patterns of problem solving process among the students of different thinking styles. It is hoped that these results will be of use when devising strategies for efficient and effective teaching. In this study the pupils were categorized as legislative, executive and judicial in their thinking styles. They were exposed to semi-structured and insight problems to which the process of solving was decomposed into 5 steps: (a) understanding the problem, (b) devising plans to solve it, (c) selecting strategies, (d) carrying out the plan, and (e) looking back -- checking the results and evaluating the solution. The computer game used as a milieu in this study consists of six units, each of which presents a unique situation. Players would have to appraise the situation, finding out the problems and the corresponding solutions all by him or herself. It is through this milieu that we study how pupils with various thinking styles would think and solve problems. This work employed qualitative methodology. Six pupils with characteristic thinking styles was selected out of 207 fifth and sixth graders by questionnaire. Each one of them was given computer games to play, during which time the entire process was videotaped. The performance was translated into words for analysis, which was confirmed by interview. The results showed that individuals with a legislative thinking style appeared more flexible in their thought process and employed multiple strategies that largely fit the goal; they are to be left free to explore on their own eithout any hinting. The executive type presented a lack of goal directed process and were are inapt for tasks that entail thinking; example are to be given as guidance during exploration. Finally the judicial type exhibited a leap in their thought process and often showed failure to follow steps in order. To restrain exploration, hinting is necessary.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009173533
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/65368
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