標題: 著作權濫用﹝Copyright Misuse﹞原則之討論─以美國法發展為例
Discussion about Copyright Misuse Doctrine-By Way of Development of US Law
作者: 劉彥汶
Liu, Yen-wen, Winnie
羅明通
王敏銓
Dr. Ming-Ton Lo
Dr. Min-Chiuan Wang
管理學院科技法律學程
關鍵字: 衡平;不潔之手;權利濫用;著作權;著作權濫用;專利權濫用;抗辯;公平交易法第四十五條;著作權法;民法第一百四十八條;equity;unclean hands;misuse;copyright;copyright misuse;patent misuse;defense;Fair Trade Act Article 45;Copyright ACT;Civil Law Article 148
公開日期: 2005
摘要: 為促進文化及科技的發展,國家創立著作權法體系,賦予著作權人在一定期間得以排除他人重製、散布、使用其著作物等權利。但在著作權人行使權利的過程中,由於著作物「不可代替性」特殊的性質,因此使得著作權人在市場上取得相當程度的優勢地位。 目前各國對於包括著作財產權人在內智慧財產權人行使權利之行為,均以競爭法制加以規範。而依據競爭法制之規定及分析方法,由於著作物「相關市場」界定的困難以及不易符合「市場力量」的構成要件,現行競爭法制對於著作權人行使權利時所發生之不當或「權利濫用」行為難以規範。如何規範此種灰色地帶行為,避免影響公共利益,在保障著作權人權益的同時,兼顧公益並且避免因為著作權人不當行使權利時所可能受有損害之相對人救濟機會,誠為重要且迫切之課題。 本文目的在於探討著作權人雖就其著作有某程度之壟斷性,其於行使權利時如發生不當行為或「權利濫用」時應如何適用法律之討論,透過文獻分析、比較法及案例研究,檢討我國目前對於著作權人行使權利時,為調和著作權與社會福利或公共利益衝突時,我國競爭法制─《公平交易法》所扮演的角色,並分析目前我國競爭法制不足之處,藉此突顯「著作權濫用」原則在我國適用上的必要性。 在進入「著作權濫用」原則討論前,本文先討論傳統「權利濫用」慨念之起源、意義,另藉由比較競爭法與「權利濫用」之異同及其區別之實益,探討競爭法制在著作權人濫用權利時之不足,以及著作權濫用原則相對於競爭法制不足可發揮的功能。 由於美國法就此部分已然於五十多年前發現到此問題,透過案例法的累積逐漸發展出「著作權濫用」原則,用以填補上述競爭法制的不足。故本文將從美國法上「專利權濫用」原則的演進及訴訟上地位的被肯定,藉由其間相關重要案例的介紹,具體說明由「專利權濫用」原則對於「著作權濫用」原則法理的形成及對於「著作權濫用」原則發展的影響。 最後借鏡美國實務在發展「著作權濫用」原則過程中,有關「著作權濫用」原則可能的意義、判斷方式、法律效果,兼論「著作權濫用」原理的優點及目前的不利之處。並針對我國「權利濫用」的規範及最高法院見解,在適用於著作權濫用案件,與現行公平交易法第四十五條之關係,以及欲主張「著作權濫用」原則之判斷標準、法律效果,提供本文之建議,俾使日後發生此類案件時,作為行政機關或司法機關之參考日後發生此類案件時,得做為行政機關或司法機關之參考。
Abstract In order to promote the progress of culture, science and technology, a country creates copyright system and grants authors the exclusive rights to their works for limited times. However, during exercising the exclusive rights, copyright owners may gain an advantage to a certain degree in the relevant market because of works of uniqueness and irreplaceablity At present, various countries in the world regulate the behavior of intellectual proprietors (including copyright owners) in exercising their exclusive rights with the help of system of competition law. It is difficult to cover all improper or misuse behavior of exercising copyright in the system of competition law for lack of component of “market power” and with difficulty to define the “relevant market” of works. How to regulate a behavior of such vague area, to protect public interests, and to avoid influencing rights of those who have damage from copyright owners’ exercising rights while ensuring copyright owners’ exclusive rights, is really an important and urgent subject. The purpose of this thesis is to discuss how to apply laws and principles when improper or misuse behavior occurs while copyright owners exercise the exclusive rights. And through document analysis, case study and comparison of foreign laws, this thesis also reviews what role the present competition law system (Fair Trade Act) in Taiwan plays while balancing copyright, social welfare and conflict between copyright and public interests and analyzes the weakness of Fair Trade Act in order to show the necessity of “copyright misuse principle” in Taiwan law system. At first, this thesis discusses the origin and meaning of “unclean hands” and “misuse” and function of “copyright misuse” doctrine to supplement the weakness of competition laws by comparing difference between misuse doctrine and the competition law system. United States has gradually developed the “copyright misuse” doctrine to resolve the insufficiency of competition law since it found this problem more than 50 years ago. This thesis introduces the related important cases, describes the progress and confirmation of “patent misuse” doctrine in suits and explains influence of “patent misuse” doctrine on development of “copyright misuse” doctrine. This thesis draws lessons from possible meaning, standards of judgment and effect of “copyright misuse” doctrine during its development in practice of Unite States and discusses advantage and disadvantage of copyright misuse” doctrine at present. And this thesis reviews “misuse” principle in Taiwan and opinions of the Supreme Court and relationship between it and Article 45 of Fair Trade Act when it applies to the territory of copyright. Finally, this thesis provides some suggestion about the standard of judgment and effect of copyright misuse doctrine in Taiwan for judicial or administrative authorities to handle with such an issue.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009168511
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/64246
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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