Title: 國籍航空公司營運績效之研究
Efficiency Analysis of Domestic Airlines in Taiwan
Authors: 陳俊男
Chun-Nan Chen
Dr. Jinn-Tsai Wong
Keywords: 國內航線航空公司;資料包絡分析;經營效率;Taiwan's domestic airlines;Data Envelopment Analysis,DEA;operation efficiency
Issue Date: 1998
Abstract: 本研究主要探討經營國內航線航空公司之經營效率,分析各項效率差異與變化,對於經營無效率的公司,說明其無效率之來源,並指出其應改善的方向與幅度。另外為探討天空開放政策以及離島偏遠航線對航空公司經營效率之影響,進一步引入跨期技術變動模式,以分析天空開放前後,航空公司在生產技術與生產力的變動程度。最後藉由國籍航空公司歷年來之財務表現與成長情形,比較各航空公司之獲利能力及其與經營效率之關係。 研究結果顯示,本島航線經營業者達到整體效率比率明顯高過於離島航線業者,而新加入的航空公司在經營初期都會有差額變數存在,表示新公司在加入營運的初期都未能有效利用其投入要素之使用,產出也都未能達到最大。在公司規模方面,始自民國84年起,大都超過了最適規模而呈現規模報酬遞減的現象,顯示國內航空運輸市場已有達到飽和之現象,無形中也使得各公司與產業的規模超過了最適規模水準,以致於必須犧牲部分效率來承受規模報酬遞減之代價。由經營效率與獲利能力大致相符之趨勢推論,航空公司之經營效率應可做為解釋航空公司獲利能力的有效方法之一。
The main focus of this paper is on operation efficiency of Taiwan's domestic airlines. Efficiency variation for each airline during the 1984-1998 period and efficiency difference among airlines are analyzed. For those relatively inefficient airlines, the source of the inefficiency is identified. The direction and the associate magnitude for the improvement are also proposed. Furthermore to analyze the efficiency change resulting from the technology and the productivity improvement due to the open sky policy, an airline's efficiency shift model is applied. Finally, the profitability and operation efficiency as well as the associated correlation are studied. The research result shows that the airlines operating network in main-island have better performance than their counterpart which operates off-shore island routes. Meanwhile, all of the new-entrant airlines have non-zero slack in the initial stage of their operation. It means that all new-entrant airlines can't use their inputs efficiently in the initial stage. In other words, the output are not optimal. As to the scale of airlines, most of the airlines after 1995 are over the optimal scale. As a result, the returns to scale is decreasing. This suggests that the domestic air transport market has saturated. Over supply will undoubtedly bring about the inefficiency and results of decrease returns to scale. Since evidence of the operation efficiency and profitability reveals that they are highly correlated, airline efficiency could be a good indicator to illustrate airlines profitability.
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