The Study of Combustibility of Interior Finish Materials and Upholstered Furniture in Full-Scale Room Fire Tests
This research carries out two kinds of large scale tests: one is furniture burning test; the other is the ISO 9705 fire room text. They serve as the preliminary study for the real scale KTV burning room tests. The main goal is to understand the combustion behaviors when the room, such as the KTV room, is decorated with wall furnishing materials and furniture. Via these test procedures, resutls and experience, we can properly design the real-scale fire room tests. In the furniture burning test, first we select an appropriate ignition source from three kinds of pilot flames, which comply to BS 5852 standard. Then, we use this chosen pilot flame as the ignition source for the burning tests of the sofa in the furniture calorimeter and room calorimeter to investigate its burning characteristics under the different environments. In the ISO burning room tests, we select three composite materials, which the wall material is covered by a sheet of wall paper (area density is approximately 215 g/m2), as the interior furnishing for testing. These composite materials are tested in advance by bench scale fire performance testing apparatuses, such as surface test apparatus, cone calorimeter, etc.. The construction method is exactly the same as what the real KTV store is commonly used. Then we use the propane turner to simulate the intensive power output as in the real are situation in order to understand the combustion behaviors of these materials in an approximate end-use conditions. From the test results, we find that the peak of heat release rate for a single sofa burning in the room is about 1.22 times of that in free burning condition. In the ISO 9705 burning room tests, the composite material of gypsum board and fire retardant wall paper has the best fire protection behavior. The composite, which using calcium silicate board as the base material, is found broken as the power output of propane burner is increased to 300KW which results in a very high back temperature. Similar behavior is found for magnesia board due to its thin thickness and high conductivity. These high back temperatures can make the combustible materials behind the ceiling, such as the wires or air condition pipes, to be ignited to increase the hazard of fire spread. Also this high back temperature will not allow the use of wooden construction behind the ceiling, otherwise, the wood will be ignited to combustion which cannot support the ceiling and result in the hazardous fire spread. From above findings in the large scale tests, we conclude that the bench scale standard test, CNS 6532 (Surface test), should examine the effects of back temperature and the breakage, which now are not taken into consideration for the final certification of the fire performance evaluation.
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