標題: 放寬管制對我國民航業之影響與國內航空市場可競爭性之驗證
The Impact of Open-Sky Policy and An Empirical Analysis of Market Contestability of the Domestic Airlines in Taiwan
作者: 曾文慧
Tseng, Wen-Hui
韓復華
Anthony Fu-Wha Han
運輸與物流管理學系
關鍵字: 解除航空管制;可競爭市場;可競爭性;潛在競爭家數;市場集中度;Airline Deregulation;Contestable Market;Contestability;potential rivals;Concentration
公開日期: 1996
摘要: 解除航空運輸管制是近年來世界各國的趨勢,美國於一九七八年通過 的航空公司解除管制法案首開先例,我國則於民國七十六年放寬航空公司 加入航空市場之管制。目前國內尚少文獻探討我國與美國在解除管制後之 市場變化及國內航空市場可競爭性,因此本文旨在探討放寬管制對我國民 航業之影響並對國內航空市場可競爭性進行驗證。本文分為兩部份:第一 部份試圖分析國內放寬管制後航空運輸市場的變化情況,並參考國內外的 研究文獻以及美國解除管制後的影響層面,與我國的情況進行一對比分析 ,瞭解我國與美國發展趨勢之異同處;第二部份擬就國內航空運輸市場可 競爭性進行實證研究。 美國航空運輸市場在解除管制後呈現出兩階段 之發展,其主要原因是由於航空公司在解除管制後所採行之策略如電腦訂 位系統、軸輻路網及共同班號等措施,增進航空公司的市場力量。本文在 比較美國第一階段與我國放寬管制之影響後,發現美國解除航空運輸管制 後,消費者享有航空公司家數增加、航空公司提供座位數增加以及航空票 價下跌等利益。而國內放寬管制後,消費者享有航空公司家數增加、航線 數增加、航空公司提供座位數增加等利益,但在票價方面則與管制時期差 異不大。整體而言我國與美國第一階段發展大同小異,有關第二階段發展 方面,則有待後續研究。 在國內航空運輸市場可競爭性實證方面,本 文蒐集民國七十六年至民國八十五年間三十一條航線之搭機人數、票價、 飛航距離、市場集中度及承載率等資料以兩個統計迴歸模式進行驗證。模 式(一)發現:國內航空運輸市場之市場集中度對航空票價無顯著影響,表 示尚無證據顯示國內航空運輸市場可競爭性不存在,因此國內航空運輸市 場是否需要加強管制,值得商榷。模式(二)進一步探究造成國內航空運輸 市場可競爭性之原因,發現國內航空市場潛在競爭家數與航空票價無顯著 相關,表示尚無證據顯示潛在競爭家數為國內航空運輸市場可競爭性之影 響因素,推測其因可能由於國內票價彈性調整空間不大所致。美國在一九 八三年完全解除航空票價管制後,航空票價漲幅率便不及消費者物價漲幅 率,且差距有逐漸加大之趨勢,使得美國航空運輸實質票價較管制前下跌 。目前我國航空票價仍有上下限之管制,航空票價漲幅率與消費者物價指 數漲幅率差距不大。借鏡美國在一九八三年完全解除票價管制後,仍促進 航空運輸業蓬勃成長,國內似乎可朝再放寬票價管制的方向發展。 In 1978, the Airline Deregulation Act became law in the United States and since then the era of the deregulation of the U.S. airline industry was begun. In Taiwan, the Open-Sky Policy which lifted the regulation of market entry upon the domestic airline was applied in 1987. This thesis attempts to explore the impact of Open-Sky Policy to the Taiwan*s domestic airline market as compared to that of the U.S., and to examine the market contestability of the domestic airlines in Taiwan. This thesis consists with two parts : Part I is to compare the changes that have taken place in the airline industry under deregulation between U.S. and Taiwan; Part II is to carry out empirical tests of the contestability hypothesis of the domestic airlines in Taiwan. The deregulation in the U.S. airline industry has increased the market power of airlines and resulted the industry having two development stages.After comparison of impacts of deregulation between Taiwan and the first stage of U. S., we find that the benefits of the travelers that include increasing the choice of airline, the available seats, the frequency of aircraft are the same but the fare is different. After the total deregulation of U.S. airline fares in 1983 , the average real fares paid by passengers have fallen . In Taiwan, the average real fares have not changed because the airline fares are regulated. The development of the domestic airline in Taiwan is almost the same with the first stage in U.S., however, the secondstage needs further research. The primary finding of the empirically testable implication of contestability in the thesis is that there is no obvious evidence rejecting the domestic airline industry in Taiwan is contestable. The thesis had also discussed the reasons of the contestability of the domestic airline in Taiwan, we find that there is no relationship between the airline fares and the numbers of the potential airlines. The reason might be the fares in Taiwan still regulated. Accounting to our study, we suggested that re- regulated policy should not be implemented on domestic airline industry in Taiwan.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#NT850118043
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/61563
Appears in Collections:Thesis