An experimental study of the influence of creative self-efficacy and expected evaluation on intrinsic motivation and creative performance
|關鍵字:||創意自我效能;預期評量;創造力;內在動機;專家共識評量;creative self-efficacy;expected evaluation;creative performance;intrinsic motivation;consensual assessment|
From the previous researches, “expected evaluation” has been recognized as one of the detrimental factors which would impair individuals’ creativity and intrinsic motivation. This study intends to test if individuals’ creative self-efficacy could serve as a moderating mechanism to immunize against the damaging effect of expected evaluation. Therefore, an experiment with 2(creative self-efficacy: high/low) × 2(expected evaluation: present/absent) factorial design, was held to clarify this effect. The dependent measures were intrinsic interest measure, flow experience scale and creative performance obtained by experts’ consensual assessment on creative product – i.e., creative article writing. According to Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, the study conducted two kinds of efficacy messages together to increase or decrease subjects’ creative self-efficacy. In the pre-experimental phase, one messages was to give failing or successful experiences, and the manipulation was to control the task difficulty by setting time limits - the task with longer time was considered as an easier one and that with shorter time as a more difficult one. The other manipulation was creativity-related feedback: negative or positive. Sixty-five subjects were randomly assigned to two settings. The first group was given easy task/positive feedback treatment and the other group was given difficult task/negative feedback treatment. The manipulation check showed the creative self-efficacy of two groups were significantly different after the efficacy treatments. Creative efficacy of the easy task/ positive feedback group didn’t show much improvement, while difficult task/negative feedback group significantly declined. In the formal experimental phase, the first group was taken as the higher creative efficacy group and the second group the lower creative efficacy group. Then the two groups received the treatment of expected evaluation (present or absent). The results are as the following. 1. The interaction of creative self-efficacy and expected evaluation on flow experience are statistically significant. The higher creative efficacy group shows no difference whether the expected evaluation is present or not, while in lower creative efficacy groups, the flowing feeling is less strong when the evaluation is present than absent, which supports the hypothesis. 2. The interactions of creative self-efficacy and expected evaluation on intrinsic interest measures are not significant. However, by comparing separately the effect of expected evaluation in the two groups of different creative-efficacy levels, in the higher creative efficacy group, the effect of expected evaluation doesn’t show difference on the measure of playfulness and satisfaction, but in the lower creative-self efficacy group, those who expected evaluation significantly report less playfulness and less satisfaction than those who expected no evaluation. 3. The interaction of creative self-efficacy and expected evaluation on three dimensions of creative product, novelty, resolution and elaboration, are not significant. A similar finding is that the effect of expected evaluation is significant when the two creative efficacy groups are compared separately. On the criteria of originality, complexity, liking and style, the higher creative efficacy group shows no difference with or without evaluation, while the lower efficacy group scores less on those criteria when evaluation is present than absent. The study also provides a synthesizing model with Amabile’s componential framework of creativity, task awareness and motivational process with detailed discussion and further implication.
|Appears in Collections:||Thesis|