Title: Electromigration and Thermomigration in Pb-Free Flip-Chip Solder Joints
Authors: Chen, Chih
Tong, H. M.
Tu, K. N.
材料科學與工程學系
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Keywords: microelectronic packaging;diffusion;reliability;current stressing;Joule heating;thermal gradient;underbump metallization
Issue Date: 2010
Abstract: Pb-free solders have replaced Pb-containing SnPb solders in the electronic packaging industry due to environmental concerns. Both electromigration (EM) and thermomigration (TM) have serious reliability issues for fine-pitch Pb-free solder bumps in the flip-chip technology used in consumer electronic products. We review the unique features of EM and TM in flip-chip solder bumps, emphasizing the effects of current crowding and joule heating. In addition, the challenges to a better understanding of EM and TM in Pb-free solders are discussed. For example, the anisotropic nature of Sn microstructure in Pb-free solders can enhance the dissolution rates of Ni and Cu in solders driven by EM and TM.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11536/6094
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.matsci.38.060407.130253
ISBN: 978-0-8243-1740-9
ISSN: 1531-7331
DOI: 10.1146/annurev.matsci.38.060407.130253
Journal: ANNUAL REVIEW OF MATERIALS RESEARCH, VOL 40
Volume: 40
Begin Page: 531
End Page: 555
Appears in Collections:Articles


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