Social Interaction between Children and Computers- Effects of Interactivity, Speech, and the Emoticon
|關鍵字:||互動設計;互動性;語音;表情符號;兒童;社會臨場感;Interaction design;Interactivity;Speech;Emoticon;Children;Social presence|
本研究旨在探索如何善用人際溝通中互動性、語音、表情符號的社會特質作為社會線索應用在數位學習環境中，在兒童參與學習活動時對電腦的態度與學習動機之影響。主要的研究議題如下：1. 首先，在人機互動中，互動性、語音、和表情符號作為社會線索的應用是否足以提升兒童之社會臨場感受；2. 再者，透過這些社會線索的提供，是否能影響兒童對電腦衍生社會吸引；3. 最後，社會線索置入於數位學習環境中是否能提升兒童的學習動機。
經由本研究執行，可具體達成以下目的：1.獲知如何將人際溝通中的互動、語音、和臉部表情轉換為社會線索應用於介面設計；2.理解電腦即社會成員典範在以兒童為對象的應用性；3.了解互動性、語音、和表情符號之社會線索對兒童與電腦互動中社會臨場感與社會吸引的影響； 4.了解互動性、語音、和表情符號應用於數位學習環境中，對兒童參與學習動機的影響； 5. 以研究為基石，提出發展社會化與激勵性之介面設計策略。本研究模式不僅可應用於相關產業，同時提出一個以兒童為使用者的研究方法探討社會臨場感之互動設計對使用者的參與感受與學習動機之影響。|
Researchers have shown that incorporating social cues into a user-interface enables a computer to create a social presence, which helps people better identify with the computer and results in more sociable experiences. The CASA (Computers Are Social Actors) paradigm asserts that human to computer interactions are fundamentally social responses. It shows potential for improving engagement and motivation. Much of this research has been focused on adult subjects. This research discussed the effects of the management of social cues in children's e-learning environment development. Specifically, it examined the roles that interactivity, speech and the emoticon play in an e-learning environment in the development of children attitudes toward computers and their intrinsic motivation. The research aimed at exploring how to utilize the social attributes of interactivity, speech, and the emoticon as social cues, as well as obtaining an insight in what effects these social cues have on children's attitudes toward computers and learning as employed in e-learning environments. It intended to focus on the following issues raised in the research. 1) The first issue of concern was whether the manipulation of such social cues as interactivity, speech, and the emoticon can be effective enough to generate strong feelings of social presence in child-computer interaction; 2) The second issue of concern was whether social cues provided by computers have an impact on children's perception of social attraction; 3) the third issue concerned whether computers with social interfaces could foster children’s intrinsic motivation for learning. Three studies were conducted to investigate the impact of interactivity, speech, and the emoticon on the issues addressed above. The first study tested whether modeling the computer to user interaction after the two factors in interpersonal communication could allow children to experience stronger feelings of social presence and social attraction, as well as sustain their intrinsic motivation with learning. The preliminary results gave us an idea that children’s attitudes toward computers can be influenced significantly and positively by the social cues rendered by a computer interface. Based on the results obtained from study I, the research then conducted the second study to compare the effects of using speech and the emoticon as social cues in e-learning environments on children. The results of study II showed that the effects of emoticon do not reach the same level as the effects of speech, and as such were not consistent with the predictions. As a result, the nature of facial expressions in interpersonal communication was reviewed further. According to the results and discussion of study II, the study III was conducted to test the effects of the use of speech and dynamic emoticons as social cues on children's attitudes toward computers, as well as their motivation within learning. Similar effects of the two social cues on children’s attitudes and motivation were observed. It was found that gender differences influence children's perception and preference of speech and dynamic emoticon. The following goals were attained through the research: 1) to acquire the knowledge of how to employ interactivity, speech, and facial expressions of interpersonal communication as social cues in application to interface design; 2) to comprehend the implementation of the CASA paradigm to target children; 3) to understand effects of social cues of interactivity, speech and the emoticon on children’s feelings of social presence and social attraction; 4) to comprehend the impacts of interactivity, speech and the emoticon in e-learning environments on children’s motivation for learning; 5) to propose a set of principles for the design of more sociable and motivating interfaces. The results of the research are useful not only to relevant industries, but also to those interested in exploring how children react to the feelings of social presence and motivation created by an interactive system.
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