標題: 兒童與電腦間之社會互動-探討互動性、語音、與表情符號的影響
Social Interaction between Children and Computers- Effects of Interactivity, Speech, and the Emoticon
作者: 董芳武
Fang-Wu Tung
鄧怡莘
Yi-Shin Deng
應用藝術研究所
關鍵字: 互動設計;互動性;語音;表情符號;兒童;社會臨場感;Interaction design;Interactivity;Speech;Emoticon;Children;Social presence
公開日期: 2006
摘要: 許多研究證實將社會線索置入使用者介面可賦予電腦本身之社會臨場感,有助於提升人們對電腦的認同而產生滿意的互動經驗。電腦即社會成員典範指出人們會對電腦衍生社會性的回應,這在於增進人們對電腦的參與動機提出了具有潛力的應用性。然而這類研究大多以成人為研究對象,因此,本研究擬以兒童為研究對象,探討社會線索在數位學習環境的應用,檢視互動性、語音與臉部表情做為社會線索的應用,就兒童對電腦的態度與參與學習動機的影響。 本研究旨在探索如何善用人際溝通中互動性、語音、表情符號的社會特質作為社會線索應用在數位學習環境中,在兒童參與學習活動時對電腦的態度與學習動機之影響。主要的研究議題如下:1. 首先,在人機互動中,互動性、語音、和表情符號作為社會線索的應用是否足以提升兒童之社會臨場感受;2. 再者,透過這些社會線索的提供,是否能影響兒童對電腦衍生社會吸引;3. 最後,社會線索置入於數位學習環境中是否能提升兒童的學習動機。 本研究執行三個研究以檢視上述所提出之議題。首先進行研究(一)探討人際溝通中互動性和語音轉換於使用者介面之互動設計,是否能讓兒童體驗較強的社會臨場感與社會吸引感受,並提升他們參與學習的動機,研究結果顯示社會線索確實能提升兒童與電腦的互動經驗與參與數位學習之動機。基於研究(一)的成果,著手執行研究(二)比較語音和表情符號作為社會線索的應用,並預測兩者具有相當的影響力,但研究結果指出表情符號未能達到語音所產生的影響程度,此研究結果促使研究者進一步討論臉部表情在人際溝通中的本質。根據研究(二)的結果與討論,研究(三)的執行目的在於檢視語音和動態表情符號作為社會線索應用於數位學習環境中,就兒童對電腦的態度與學習動機之影響。研究結果證實語音和動態表情符號的影響程度並沒有顯著的差異,此外,結果分析中發現性別差異影響兒童對語音和動態表情符號的接受與偏好。 經由本研究執行,可具體達成以下目的:1.獲知如何將人際溝通中的互動、語音、和臉部表情轉換為社會線索應用於介面設計;2.理解電腦即社會成員典範在以兒童為對象的應用性;3.了解互動性、語音、和表情符號之社會線索對兒童與電腦互動中社會臨場感與社會吸引的影響; 4.了解互動性、語音、和表情符號應用於數位學習環境中,對兒童參與學習動機的影響; 5. 以研究為基石,提出發展社會化與激勵性之介面設計策略。本研究模式不僅可應用於相關產業,同時提出一個以兒童為使用者的研究方法探討社會臨場感之互動設計對使用者的參與感受與學習動機之影響。
Researchers have shown that incorporating social cues into a user-interface enables a computer to create a social presence, which helps people better identify with the computer and results in more sociable experiences. The CASA (Computers Are Social Actors) paradigm asserts that human to computer interactions are fundamentally social responses. It shows potential for improving engagement and motivation. Much of this research has been focused on adult subjects. This research discussed the effects of the management of social cues in children's e-learning environment development. Specifically, it examined the roles that interactivity, speech and the emoticon play in an e-learning environment in the development of children attitudes toward computers and their intrinsic motivation. The research aimed at exploring how to utilize the social attributes of interactivity, speech, and the emoticon as social cues, as well as obtaining an insight in what effects these social cues have on children's attitudes toward computers and learning as employed in e-learning environments. It intended to focus on the following issues raised in the research. 1) The first issue of concern was whether the manipulation of such social cues as interactivity, speech, and the emoticon can be effective enough to generate strong feelings of social presence in child-computer interaction; 2) The second issue of concern was whether social cues provided by computers have an impact on children's perception of social attraction; 3) the third issue concerned whether computers with social interfaces could foster children’s intrinsic motivation for learning. Three studies were conducted to investigate the impact of interactivity, speech, and the emoticon on the issues addressed above. The first study tested whether modeling the computer to user interaction after the two factors in interpersonal communication could allow children to experience stronger feelings of social presence and social attraction, as well as sustain their intrinsic motivation with learning. The preliminary results gave us an idea that children’s attitudes toward computers can be influenced significantly and positively by the social cues rendered by a computer interface. Based on the results obtained from study I, the research then conducted the second study to compare the effects of using speech and the emoticon as social cues in e-learning environments on children. The results of study II showed that the effects of emoticon do not reach the same level as the effects of speech, and as such were not consistent with the predictions. As a result, the nature of facial expressions in interpersonal communication was reviewed further. According to the results and discussion of study II, the study III was conducted to test the effects of the use of speech and dynamic emoticons as social cues on children's attitudes toward computers, as well as their motivation within learning. Similar effects of the two social cues on children’s attitudes and motivation were observed. It was found that gender differences influence children's perception and preference of speech and dynamic emoticon. The following goals were attained through the research: 1) to acquire the knowledge of how to employ interactivity, speech, and facial expressions of interpersonal communication as social cues in application to interface design; 2) to comprehend the implementation of the CASA paradigm to target children; 3) to understand effects of social cues of interactivity, speech and the emoticon on children’s feelings of social presence and social attraction; 4) to comprehend the impacts of interactivity, speech and the emoticon in e-learning environments on children’s motivation for learning; 5) to propose a set of principles for the design of more sociable and motivating interfaces. The results of the research are useful not only to relevant industries, but also to those interested in exploring how children react to the feelings of social presence and motivation created by an interactive system.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009142808
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/60735
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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