標題: APEC經濟體之總要素環境能源效率
Total-Factor Environmental-Energy Efficiency of APEC Economies
作者: 高志宏
Chih-Hung Kao
胡均立
Jin-Li Hu
經營管理研究所
關鍵字: 資料包絡分析法;環境能源政策;總要素能源效率;總要素節能目標;總要素二氧化碳減量目標;產業結構;Data envelopment analysis (DEA);Environmental-energy policy;Total-factor energy-saving target (EST);Total-factor energy-saving target ratio (ESTR);Total-factor CO2 abatement target (CAT);Industrial structure
公開日期: 2005
摘要: 能源係人類生活中的重要元素。隨著經濟的持續發展,能源消耗亦大量增加,但能源卻有其供給上限。同時,能源的生產及消費所產生的廢氣對環境產生極大的衝擊。因此,使用能源以促進經濟發展,並兼顧環境保護的議題日漸重要,並為能源政策中重要的一環。在新燃料及替代能源具可行性及經濟性以前,為維持經濟發展需要,在制定環境能源政策上,提昇能源效率及降低二氧化碳(CO2)排放量成為兩大主軸。尤其是發展中及工業化國家,更注重這兩方面的議題。 過去能源學者如Patterson (1996)及Wilson et al. (1994)曾建議能源效率應以總要素概念進行衡量,但過去文獻仍均採用部分要素指標進行環境能源效率之衡量及比較。本文嘗試使用資料包絡分析法,建構總要素資源投入減量指標,再發展出總要素環境能源指標,以探討環境能源政策中,有關節能效率及CO2減量議題,並以APEC經濟體為例進行探討。透過建構出的總要素環境能源指標與實際投入量的比較,分別就能源及CO2,以分析各經濟體的節能目標及CO2減量目標。本文亦就環境能源效率與經濟發展及產業結構之關聯進行分析,同時審視APEC中主要經濟體的能源效率政策,以提供各經濟體於制定提昇能源效率及降低CO2排放量的環境能源政策上的政策建議及方案構想。 本研究分析1991年至2000年間亞太經濟合作(APEC)中17個經濟體的環境能源效率。名目變數均已轉換為以1995年為基準年的購買力(PPP)實質變數。本研究主要發現如下:(1)中國的環境能源效率最低,並在能源消耗及CO2減量上,具有最大可減少量及比率(約50%)。(2)香港、菲律賓及美國是APEC中最具有環境能源效率的三個經濟體,可為其他經濟體在環境能源政策上仿傚及學習的標竿。(3)APEC經濟體的總體及個別環境經濟效率都在逐年提昇中。(4)人均節能目標與人均GDP間有倒U型的關係存在。(5)人均 CO2減量目標與人均GDP間存有環境顧志耐曲線的關係。(6)環境能源效率與服務業對GDP的貢獻比重呈正相關。工業對GDP的貢獻比重愈高,能源使用效率愈差。 發展中及新興工業國家不僅可持續投入資源以維持經濟發展,更可透過節能及CO2減量以兼顧永續發展。經由本文的研究分析,無效率的APEC經濟體在制定政策計畫時,可向有效率的經濟體已施行的政策經驗借鏡,且不會妨礙國家的經濟發展。透過APEC的跨國際合作,可減少成本並增加新政策成功的機會。
Energy is one of the most important basic elements for human’s living from time immemorial. Perto-fossil fuels are limited while energy consumption and economic development are unconstrained. Meanwhile, energy production and consumption have undesirable environmental repercussions. The effects of economic growth using energy on natural and environmental resources have become a central question with the rising concern over environmental protection. Before new and alternative fuels become available, improving energy efficiency and reducing CO2 emissions are two necessities for an economy to design national environmental-energy policy while remaining its economic development possibilities. Although some energy scholars, such as Patterson (1996) and Wilson et al. (1994), suggested using total factor indicator to evaluate energy efficiency, the existing literature all uses partial-factor indicators to analyze environmental-energy efficiency. This study tries to use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach for constructing a total-factor framework which is then applied to study APEC economies. Input-reducing targets are extracted from the total-factor framework. Environmental-energy efficiency indicators are also derived from the same total-factor framework. The potential energy savings and CO2 abatement also result from the environmental-energy efficiency indicators. This study also overview the energy efficiency polices in selected APEC economies for providing policy and program ideas for reducing consumption and emission growth. Seventeen APEC economies during 1991 to 2000 are analyzed. All nominal variables are transformed into real variables by the purchasing power parity (PPP) at the 1995 price level. The DEA approach is used to construct environmental-energy efficiency indicators for APEC economies without reducing their maximum potential gross domestic productions (GDPs) in each year. The production function with inputs including labor and capital as well as energy and CO2, respectively, is analyzed, while GDP is the single output. The major findings are as follows: (1) China has the worst environmental-energy efficiency and has the largest potential energy savings and CO2 abatement almost half of its current amount. (2) Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the United States have the highest environmental-energy efficiency. (3) The environmental-energy efficiency generally increases for APEC economies. (4) An inverted U-shape relation exists between per capita potential energy savings and per capita GDP. (5) An Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) relation exists between per capita CO2 abatement target and per capita GDP. (6) The higher value-added percentage of GDP by the service sector has more efficient environmental-energy efficiency. The higher value-added percentage of GDP by the industry sector has more inefficient energy consumption.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009137801
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/59967
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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