標題: 筆記型電腦產業營運模式分析與供應鏈設計
Operation Model Analysis and Supply Chain Design for Notebook-Computer Industry
作者: 陳其華
Chi-Hwa Chern
馮正民
Cheng-Min Feng
運輸與物流管理學系
關鍵字: 灰關聯分析;供應鏈設計;筆記型電腦產業;多目標決策分析;Grey Relational Analysis;Supply Chain Design;Notebook-computer;Multi-objective Decision
公開日期: 2008
摘要: 國內筆記型電腦產業在全球市場中佔有重要地位,長久以來為各國際品牌廠商重要的生產代工夥伴,憑藉優異的產品品質、設計能力及快速因應市場變化之作業彈性,在全球筆記型電腦供應鏈益發扮演舉足輕重之角色,從過去僅為供應鏈製造商逐步轉變為提供國際品牌廠商全面性供應鏈解決方案之事業夥伴。筆記型電腦產業之全球供應鏈營運模式係由商業模式(OEM/ODM)及流程模式(BTF/BTO/CTO)所構成,本研究首先針對不同營運模式加以分析,透過國內領導廠商調查作業與深度訪談,藉以瞭解不同營運模式之共通特性與差異性。調查內容主要針對供應鏈內涵設計「供應鏈營運目標」、「供應鏈管理效率」、「關聯產業策略聯盟」及「物流設施區位選擇」等四個層面之重要影響要素,針對各要素重要程度調查結果透過灰關聯分析定義現行各種不同營運模式之關鍵要素群並建立其對應之參考模式,進一步探討其特性異同點,透過營運模式探討與分析,將有助於供應鏈佈局之策略應用。 全球筆記型電腦競爭非常激烈,為縮短產品供應之前置時間及快速回應市場差異化需求以因應市場挑戰,國際品牌廠商與國內代工廠商將更著重於建立更加整合與協調之營運模式。為了爭取國際品牌廠商穩定的訂單,驅使國內代工製造商努力重新建構其供應鏈體系,俾取得競爭優勢且充分支援國際品牌廠商面對市場挑戰,其中如何妥適進行供應鏈佈局為國內代工製造商所面臨之重要課題之一。供應鏈規劃模式可區分為策略面規劃模式及營運面規劃模式二大類,過去相關文獻中針對此二類模式均有相當的探討與觀點提出,惟僅少部分文獻針對策略面與營運面規劃關係進行概念性探討,在規劃模式的整合上則較少觸及。本研究將以國內筆記型電腦產業支援國際品牌廠商之供應鏈營運特性與發展趨勢分析為基礎,藉由策略與營運互動關係探討,提出整合型多目標供應鏈設計模式概念,同時於模式中考量策略面規劃與營運面規劃課題,充分反映在供應鏈設計上策略面與規劃面之相互影響關係。 供應鏈各環節之不確定性對企業而言為一必須正視之關鍵課題,對於實務供應鏈管理績效分析上亦產生相當的影響,在供應鏈設計之規劃作業上應予納入考量,本研究於模式建構中引用彈性之概念,以反映製造商吸收生產與市場需求不確定性之能力。該供應鏈設計模式係以探討策略面規劃決策與營運面規劃決策間之權衡關係為基礎,藉以尋求合理之供應鏈佈局型態,並透過多目標決策分析方法建立一多面向之供應鏈績效(包括供應鏈成本、顧客服務水準、生產彈性與配送彈性等)衡量系統。本研究提出之供應鏈設計模式將有助於國內代工筆記型電腦廠商進行有效率及彈性之供應鏈佈局,並可應用於選擇及評估不同之供應鏈佈局方案。
The operational models of global supply chain primarily include the business model (OEM/ODM) and the process model (BTF/BTO/CTO). This research aims to understand the specific characteristics within different operational models used to achieve firm operational targets. An empirical study in Taiwan is illustrated through the questionnaires and depth-interviews. The Data were collected by means of in-depth interviews with senior managers in the relevant area in 12 notebook computer manufacturers in Taiwan. In the Interviews we asked the managers in terms of 4 dimensions inclusive of “supply chain targets”, “supply chain management efficiency”, “strategic alliance” and “logistics facility locations”, totally there are 64 initial factors, which they used to analyze and compare each of six main operational models, and thus to help them decide whether or not they should use the model in their attempts to achieve their various targets. Grey Relation Analysis (GRA) method is used to identify the key factors in global supply chain; different factors stresses in different operational models are chosen and comprise reference models reflecting practical global operations. These reference models provide more concrete description of the differences in global operational decisions. The hidden knowledge of the cooperative relationship between manufacturers and multinational brand companies can then be systematically described. These findings could be helpful to further strategic analysis. More integrated and coordinated operations are necessary for contract manufacturers and multinational Brands in shortening lead-time and quickly responding to customers’ needs. These challenges drive Taiwanese manufacturers to make efforts to redesign the supply chain for the purpose of gaining successive advantages in global operations. Supply chain can be divided into strategic level and operational level. Models had been developed for optimizing supply chain operations at these two levels. Supply chain literature reveals a gap in the integration of strategic and operational supply chain models. Strategic and operational considerations have not been extensively discussed and integrated in a comprehensive way of thinking and model formulation. In this research, the characteristics and developments in different supply chain models are introduced based on the coordination between contract manufacturers and multinational brand companies. Based on the key factors selected from different operational models, we further explore the interactive activities and developing trend in global operations in a comprehensive way of thinking. Concepts of an integrated multi-objective supply chain design model are developed for simultaneously considering strategic-level and operational-level planning. Decisions in strategic-level planning have direct impacts on operational-level planning, and vice versa. As an extremely challenging but significant issue in SCM, uncertainty represents a primary difficulty in the practical analysis of supply chain performance. Supply chain planning should address flexibility, reflecting the ability to absorb uncertainty from randomness in material/product supply and market demand. This research proposes a supply chain design model based on the decisions tradeoffs in strategic-level and operational-level planning. Multi-objective decision analysis is performed so that a performance measurement system based on cost, customer service levels (fill rates), and Flexibility (volume or delivery) can be adopted. This measurement system provides more comprehensive measurement of supply chain system performance. The proposed model herein helps in (1) the design of efficient, effective, and flexible supply chain systems and (2) the evaluation of competing supply chain for the notebook-computer industry.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009136801
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/59268
Appears in Collections:Thesis


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