標題: 「促進大眾運輸發展方案」影響公路客運績效之實證研究:1992-2001
The Effects of Enhancement of Mass Transportation Program on Taiwan Highway Motor Carriers: 1992-2001
作者: 張雪君
Hsueh-Chun Chang
藍武王
Lawrence W. Lan
運輸與物流管理學系
關鍵字: 資料包絡分析法;促進大眾運輸發展方案;公路汽車客運業;生產力指標;技術效率;服務效果;總要素生產力;總要素銷售力;data envelopment analysis (DEA);Enhancement of Mass Transportation Program;highway motor carrier;Malmquist index;technical efficiency;service effectiveness;total factor productivity (TFP);total sale productivity (TSP)
公開日期: 2003
摘要: 為了改善大眾運輸服務和幫助客運業者解決財務危機或營運困境,交通部乃於民國84年8月頒布為期五年的「促進大眾運輸發展方案」。在此方案中,減免大眾運輸稅費改善了業者的財政負擔,直接金錢補貼協助業者維持偏遠地區服務性路線之基本民行,定期的營運評價確保了運輸服務品質,進入障礙的解除,鼓勵了客運業者在公路客運市場的競爭,公車專用道和創新的智慧型運輸系統方案的實施,也改善了客運業者的效率和效果,然而缺乏一個詳盡的分析,我們並無法了解促大方案的實施是否改善了運輸服務。 這篇文章是探討台灣地區公路汽車客運業者在促大方案執行前後的績效變化狀況,選擇29家客運業者,利用資料包絡分析方法分別針對技術效率、服務效果、總要素生產力和總要素銷售力進行績效的衡量;衡量的時間:民國81-90年。我們採用投入導向DEA模式來衡量技術效率、產出導向DEA模式來分析服務效果,另再針對近10年來我國公路汽車客運業者進行生產力的評估,並進一步將生產力成長分解為技術進步與效率改變項目,看看其在這10年來生產力變化的趨勢,以探討造成生產力成長或衰退的來源。 實證結果顯示促大方案執行前後,29家業者在技術效率值和服務效果皆獲得改善。進一步再採用The Kruskal-Wallis rank test,檢定公路汽車客運業者的效率不會隨著區域改變,效果值會隨著區域的不同而有所變化。並發現效率前緣不會隨著觀測期間81-90年而移動。另發現變動規模報酬(VRS)在汽車客運產業是較盛行。並再針對客運業者進行敏感度分析,且採用Tobit regression找出會影響效率和效果的因子,並在具影響力的外顯因子下,進一步採用EXO DEA MODELS 來估計效率和效果值。 另對各業者公司整體,採用Malmquist Analysis觀察這10年來公路汽車客運業者總要素生產力和銷售力的變化狀況,結果發現29家業者其總要素生產力是有所成長的,但在銷售力方面卻呈現下滑的狀況。
In order to ameliorate the mass transportation services and to assist those operators with financial crises or operational difficulties, the five-year Enhancement of Mass Transportation Program, approved by Executive Yuan, had been implemented by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications from 1996 to 2001. In this program, the tax/fee exemption has improved the operators’ financial crises, the direct subsidy has offered the essential money to keep the deficit routes in service, the periodical operational appraisal has ensured the transport service quality, the lift of entrance barrier has encouraged the competition in the freeway coach market, and the introduction of more exclusive lanes and innovative ITS demonstration projects have also improved the efficiency and effectiveness of bus operation. However, without a detailed analysis, one would not know how much this Enhancement Program has ameliorated the mass transport services. This study investigates the change in the performance of Taiwan highway motor carriers before and after the Enhancement Program. Some 29 carriers during the period 1992-2001 are chosen as the decision making units (DMUs), whose performance including technical efficiency, service effectiveness, total factor productivity (TFP), and total sale productivity (TSP) are compared by various data envelopment analysis (DEA) approaches. We estimate technical efficiency by the input-oriented DEA models and service effectiveness by the output-oriented DEA models. Furthermore, we utilize Malmquist index analysis to investigate the change in TFP and TSP before and after the Enhancement Program. Our empirical results indicate that the technical efficiency and service effectiveness for 29 DMUs has been improved after exercising this Enhancement Program. The Kruskal-Wallis rank tests show that the efficiency does not vary among regions but the effectiveness does. The frontiers do not shift during the study periods and most carriers reveal variable returns to scale. We also carry out sensitivity analysis for the efficient and/or effective DMUs and further conduct Tobit regression to identify the significant factors affecting the efficiency and effectiveness scores. To compare the relative efficiency and effectiveness of the DMUs in a more homogeneous environment, the exogenously fixed inputs DEA are also attempted. As for the productivity change, our empirical results show that the TFP for the 29 carriers grows up but the TSP declines after the implementation of this Enhancement Program.
URI: http://140.113.39.130/cdrfb3/record/nctu/#GT009136505
http://hdl.handle.net/11536/58978
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