GC/MS, On-line Preconcentration Techniques in Capillary Electrophoresis and Microchip Electrophoresis for the Analyses of Abused Drugs
|關鍵字:||K他命;安非他命;線上前濃縮;濫用藥物;ketamine;amphetamine;on-line preconcentration;abused drug|
Illicit and abused drugs are often known by street names that vary from area to area. A call to a local police station, or animal or human poison control center, can be extremely helpful in identifying the illicit substance. Most human hospitals, emergency clinics, or veterinary diagnostic laboratories have illicit drug screens available and can check for the presence of illicit drugs or their metabolites in different body fluids. The presence of a parent drug or its metabolites in blood or urine may help confirm the exposure in suspect cases. Veterinarians should contact these laboratories for the types of samples needed and time required for completion. Commonly available over-the-counter drug test kits may be helpful in ruling out a suspected case of illicit drug toxicosis. These test kits are inexpensive, efficient, and easy to use. They are designed to detect drug metabolites in the urine and can detect most commonly available illicit or recreational drugs such as amphetamines, cocaine, marijuana, opiates, and barbiturates. The sensitivities and specificities of these test kits may vary. The instructions provided with each kit should be followed carefully for best results. In this work, first, we have simultaneously determinated and quantified ketamine and its major metabolites, norketamine, 5,6-dehydronorketamine, and deaminonorketamine, in human urine and hair using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) (Chapter 2). The next, we also have investigated a rapid, simple, and highly efficient on-line preconcentration method using in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for the analysis of abused drugs including ketamine (Chapter 3), flunitrazepam (Chapter 4), cocaine, heroine, opiates (Chapter 5), and their major metabolites. The optimized sweeping method was also used to examine a urine sample. We conclude that sweeping with micellar electrokinetic chromatography has considerable potential use in clinical and forensic analyses of flunitrazepam and its metabolites. Finally, we have devised a rapid and highly efficient separation method for the separation and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and ephedrine using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and dry-film-based microchip capillary electrophoresis (DFB-MCE) with electrochemical detection. These analytes were separated in a plastic microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. The capillary electrophoresis-based methods are extremely complementary to GC/MS-based forensic analyses (Chapter 6).
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